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The Wheel

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Eric Wei

on 2 March 2012

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Transcript of The Wheel

The Wheel Transportation Other Forms Gears Train Wheels Evolution Beginning
Wooden log underneath a heavy object
Problem-many logs were needed
Solution-cross bar created to prevent logs from slipping out
Only two logs needed
Sledge invented-sled
Placed on log
Made groves in log over time
Made it easier to move the load
Improved by thinning the axle
Problem-hard to turn
Solution-bore hole in wheel and let the axle be fixed to the load
Invention of the wheel as we know it Changing the Wheel Early wheels were made out of wood
Problems-split often
Solution-made wheel out of planks of wood/usually three pieces
Orginal idea to make wheel lighter/use less material
Came from Egyptian Chariots of around 2000 BC
Improved speed
Wheels started to be made from specialists
Protection Protective sheathing was wrapped around the wheel
Made from leather, iron, wood and later rubber
Leather protected wheel from jagged rocks/easily repaced
Iron provided more protection, but needed more maintenance
Early single bands of iron were badly placed/required bolts to keep in place
Invention of heating slightly smaller bands/cooling in place
Didn't require extra material to keep in place

Made from wire tension
Wire threded through rim and hub of wheel
Wooden spokes support from below the wheel/wire supports from above
Bicycle tires are the first to use pneumatic tires
Rubber with air pumped inside
Provided high speed, comfortable and smooth transportation Disk Wheel Life expectancy of 20,000 miles
Still not very strong
Punctures were very common
Repairs needed every 30-40 miles
Smiliar to solid wheel
Type of automobile wheels we see today
Easier to build/simpler
Stronger/less material needed
Advanced plastic and metal materials made wheels lightweight/able to reach high speeds
Today, there are two main types of wheels
more traditional
Not common, but still seen
Better fit
Improved steering/prolong life of breaks
More expensive
Time Line 3500 BC year of invention/location, Mesopotamia
First wheel for transportation purpose- 3200 BC/Paleolithic era (15000 to 750000 years ago)
Another 15000 years unitl invention of spoke wheels
First iron rim wheel seen on Celtic chariots of 1000 BC
1802- G.F. Bauer patented the first wire tension spoke
1885- Karl Benz added rubber to wheels
1910- B.F. Goodrich Company invented longer life tires by adding carbon
Spokes Wheels with spokes Used to hoisting heavy objects for buildings or anchors on ships
Earliest gears used engaging spokes
Greek used metal gears with wedge shape teeth
Romans used it in mills
Stone gears in Sweden
System used to reduce or increase rotation speed
Future The Tweel
Non-pneumatic solution to punctures in tire
Flexible rubber spokes/still able to provide comfort
Viberation of rubber spokes at 50 mph makes it only suitable for construction vehicles
Water Wheel Uses gravity of falling water for energy
Three major forms
All involve a wheel with paddles or buckets for the water to push againts Undershot Wheel on a flowing river
Water pushes paddles
Least efficient of the three
Used only with fast flowing rivers
Breastshot Water falling at the middle of the wheel
More efficient than undershot/less efficient than overshot
Used with fast flowing rivers
Tricky to build Overshot Water falling from the top of the wheel
Most efficient form
Water source is usually from a pipe
Overshot is wheel turning counter-clockwise/pitchback is turning clockwise Use of Gears Flexible system of changing mechanical energy
Standard in gears
Bevel 4 start worm Early Forms Wagons ran in groves in the roads
Wheel width became standard to fit all tracks
Wheels on iron rails proved to require less energy
Flanged Invented by John Curr
Inner part of wheel runs on the side of the track
prevents train from slidding off rail Use in Minning Minecarts very common
Flat wheels on rails
Wooden peg to keep cart in correct direction
Biblography http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_transport
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