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9-4 A More Perfect Union
Transcript of 9-4 A More Perfect Union
Idea of limiting power of a ruler was taken from England's Magna Carta – document signed in 1215 that limited power of the king.
Parliament – the lawmaking body in Great Britain.
Another influence – John Locke, said a government is a contract between the ruler and the ruled. Also said people have natural right to life, liberty, and ownership of property.
Concept of Separation of Powers was proposed by Baron de Montesquieu. He argued for government divided into 3 parts – legislative, executive, and judicial. Articles had given states more power, but the Constitution divided power between the states and the federal government.
Federalism: division of power between national government and states.
National government is also called the federal government.
Powers of federal government: declare war, issue money, regulate trade, and make treaties.
State powers included regulating trade within their borders, and establishing public schools within a state.
Overlapping powers: right to tax, to try criminals, and to build roads. Legislative branch of national government
is called Congress.
Main responsibility of legislative branch
is to make laws.
Congress has power to declare war. Executive branch – main responsibility is
to carry out laws passed by legislative branch.
Executive branch includes President,
Vice President, and advisers. Judicial branch – courts hear cases that
involve constitutional rights, disputes
between states, and laws passed by
Highest court in the land is the
Supreme Court. It can settle
disputes between states. Instead of citizens directly electing President, Electoral College votes and elects President.
Electors – people who represent the voters
in each state in presidential elections. Checks and Balances – safeguards to keep one branch from having too much power or dominating the others. Gives each branch control over other branches.
Impeachment – Congress taking the President to court. May or may not
lead to removal of President
from office. On the question of ratification, Federalists favored the Constitution, and Anti-Federalists opposed it.
To respond to objections, people who favored Constitution promised to provide a bill of rights to protect the people.
Bill of Rights – this document guarantees the rights of the people, such as freedom of religion and freedom of the press. Includes the first 10 amendments to Constitution.
Rhode Island was the last state to ratify the Constitution.