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Industrial Process Chemistry Assignment

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by

Raghda Alnasser

on 22 March 2013

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Transcript of Industrial Process Chemistry Assignment

Consumers Consumption Production Distribution The Reaction The Product The global battery production process Alkaline Alkaline batteries are preferred by many consumers even thought they are a little more expensive since they are long lasting and have a higher voltage
--> A simple pack of AA or AAA alkaline batteries can be bought between 5 to 10 dollars.
Price is based on things such as material cost, capacity, voltage and total available lifetime of battery
The battery itself is also hazardous and is recommended to be recycled instead of thrown out.
--> Has a terrible affect on our environment if not discarded properly because of the mercury, acid, zinc or manganese that may enter our water supply or seep into the earth’s soil
--> recycled material can be used to make new batteries They are a simple device that can power electronics that we use every day
--> ex. Phones clocks, cameras, GPS, laptops
Alkaline batteries are rechargeable
--> allows a frequent use of them for long periods of time
Batteries allow all our physical technology to run efficiently in order for us to use them
The battery itself is not useful unless it is put into a device in order for it to convert its stored chemical energy into electricity A Life Without Batteries

The powdered zinc consumes hydroxyl ions
Results in the oxidization of zinc and the production of water in the anode
This reaction occurs in the anode, creating negative electrons on one end of the battery First Half Reaction The manganese oxide consumes water
Results in hydroxide ions in the cathode
This reaction creates positively charged electrons in the other end of the battery Second Half Reaction Every year, over 15 billion batteries for household use are produced and sold worldwide, many of which are alkaline batteries. If all these batteries are stacked one by one, it is long enough to reach planet Mars. Alkaline batteries are used in almost all parts of our everyday life. The Average Annual Production Batteries The End
Thank You All about Alkaline Batteries Type of primary batteries that are re-chargeable (eco-friendly because reusable)
Two main parts, anode -ve terminal and the cathode +ve terminal
Electrodes are conductors and allow anode to be -vley charged and cathode to be +vely charged Zinc solid + aqueous hydroxide --> Zinc Oxide solid + Water + 2 electrons
Zn(s) + 2OH−(aq) --> ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + 2e− [e° = -1.28 V] Manganese oxide solid + Water + 2 electrons -->
Manganese oxide + aqueous hydroxide 2MnO2(s) + H2O(l) + 2e− --> Mn2O3(s) + 2OH−(aq) [e° = +0.15 V] Final Reaction Zinc solid + Manganese oxide solid + Water -->
Zinc oxide solid + Manganese oxide solid

Zn(s) + 2MnO2(s) + H2O --> ZnO(s) + Mn2O3(s) [e° = 1.43 V] Created using the elements from the half reactions
Battery will produce electricity when
--> Manganese dioxide cathode is reduced
--> Zinc anode becomes oxidized Each alkaline battery has a separator
Fibrous fabric which separates electrodes
The rate of the reaction is dependent on
--> Quality of the raw materials used
--> Availability of water and the hydroxide ions
The water and the hydroxide ions ensure that there are strong -vley and +vley charged electrons in both the zinc and manganese Purpose of the Separator Will only occur when battery is placed in a device and the device is turned on
When circuit of the battery is closed, zinc and the manganese from anode and the cathode mix together to allow the reaction to occur
This reaction creates a strong current of electrons to interchange between the anode and the cathode
This flow of electrons is electricity and can be used to power applications. When Will the Final Reaction Occur? Living in a first world country, we cannot go one day without using a device with a alkaline battery. A life without batteries would be extremely difficult, but still possible Use of The Alkaline Battery Efficiency of the Production Process Sales Chemicals Time There are many hazardous environmental factors that come out of the industrial process for all types of batteries, including alkaline
The pollution that is released from factories contributes to global warming and destroys the ozone layer
Many gallons of Sulphuric Acid leak into waters or soil near the factory
Leads to contamination of water supply to nearest community near factory, including wildlife that needs the water to survive
-->Ex. Fish and plants living near/in the body of water die or strugle to survive
It required billions of dollars to clean up an acid spill in the water; it is a long and difficult process. How Batteries Affect the Environment How To Properly Dispose a Battery $50 billion dollars annually
Roughly $5.5 billion is allocated to alkaline batteries
5.5 billion is roughly the same amount of money Facebook made
There is many competition in the battery industry
--> Alkaline, lead-air and/or lithium batteries Substances used to make alkaline batteries are more expensive in comparison to normal batteries
Sales decrease since alkaline batteries are rechargeable
Alkaline batteries cost more so it makes up for the loss in sales By: Raghda Alnasser and Aisha Soomro
Do not have a great chemical waste within the production process
--> ex. the amount of mercury has significantly decreased in the production of alkaline batteries
Therefore environmental friendly Alkaline batteries generally have the same production process as normal batteries 25,000 palettes are produced per hour
Machine called consult press inserts three palettes into each consult
In one second 5 batteries are complete
It takes nine minutes for the potassium hydroxide to soak into separator
Batteries are produced faster due to faster machines, therefore more time efficient AED / Defibrillator (Paramedic CU-ER1) Cell Phone Charger
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