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nuraini yahya

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chapter 1
malaysia: unity in diversity
The Dynamics of Ethnic Relations in Malaysia
Comparison: Malaysia & Sri Lanka
In generally, Malaysia is a peaceful and stable country, but there are still had few conflict in becoming a peaceful and stable country .
Era of conflict (1945-1960)
Era of tense but stable (1961-1970)
Era of Social solidarity (1971- 2011)

Portrait of Ethnic Relations in Malaysia
Malaysia remain strong demographic composition. Developed and developing country even respect Malaysia in the context of a multi-ethnic country.

Peaceful situation has positive impact on political stability, economic and social good.

Malaysia managed to reach middle-income countries in less than 50 years.

The uniqueness of governance to manage the country of unity in diversity is very important.

Relationships and Mutual Interdependence
• Ongoing social relations built among the members of Malaysian society across ethnic, religious, cultural and language through interaction with each other.

Authority Define and Everyday Define
• Definition of authority as the country, for example, tend to be fixed by the boundary that cannot be changed. The definition of Malays as enshrined in Article 160.
• Everyday define by the definition of civil society is probably more relate in our daily life among us to ensure they can continue their daily life without any conflict peacefully.

4A in social cohesion
• Accommodation, acculturation, amalgamation, and assimilation always occurs in our daily life to maintain ethnic tolerance and acceptance among us.


Introduction
In Malaysia, throughout 55 years of independence, people focus more on conflicts besides of positive relations amongst Malaysian. But, the positive side of ethnic relations is still there. Therefore, the concept of social cohesion posed to explain the phenomenon that occurs in Malaysia.

Konsep perpaduan Dalam Kepelbagaian
Social Psycology - sense of oneness' that cross physical and psychological separation, which includes also the metaphysical.
Antropologi-sosiologi - how people manage and organize existing social differences among them.
Ontologikal - the need to manage and organize these differences are, in general, the desire to create peace and stability in the composition of a community that has a composite social groups in order to gain pleasure and perhaps even material prosperity.


What is Unity?
The process of uniting the whole society and country to form an identity and shared values ​​and a sense of love and pride to homeland.
unity is uniformity also refer to similarity or equity – one nation, one religion, one language, one country is just a slogan.
unity is uniformity - a picture of a perfect society that can not be realized.

Social Solidarity Concept
According tu Shamsul Amri Baharuddin, social solidarity concept is:

“A social phenomenon that affects the members of the community to try to achieve unity ".

Understanding the concept of social solidarity through everyday define concept as an access to unity.
In this case, “everyday define” more effective than 'authority define', as every member of a society is free to act and behave for the survival of self, family and social groups.
If there is any conflict, members will soon find a solution through negotiation in various ways and forms.
The concept of integration is more realistic in the context of Malaysia.
Therefore, the concept of social cohesion posed to explain the phenomenon that occurs in Malaysia.
1 | Era of Conflict (1945 – 1960)
After World War 2 End
ethnic rebellion in malaya- an ethnic conflict between Chinese and Malays who broke out in relation with Bintang Tiga, 14 days after the end of Japanese colonization, on 16 August 1945.
Labour rebellion- the head of organization that planned the rebels and strikes had been arrested and their organization were banned. On 16 June 1948, the first over act of the war took place when three European plantation managers were killed at sungai siput, Perak. The government/British had declared the emergency and ended on 1960.

Step taken by government:
Declaration of emergency in 1948 to 1960. (12 years)
Establish a Communities Liaison Committee (CLC) on 1949.
Draft Development Plan 1950-1955, or ‘rencana pembangunan lima tahun’.
implement the concept ‘ethnic bargaining’/ (tolak ansur etnik dalam analisis politik Malaysia).

2 | Era of Tense but Stable (1961 – 1970)
The formation of Malaysia 1963: Perjanjian 20 perkara with Sabah and Perjanjian 18 Perkara with Sarawak.
Confrontation between Malaysia-Indonesia (1963-1966) ‘neo-colony’.
Ethnic conflict 1964 & 1969:
-July & September 1964, Singapore (Melayu-Cina).
-13 May 1969, Kuala Lumpur & 3 other places (Melayu-Cina).
Singapore & Malaysia split 9 August 1965.
Step taken by government:
1.Majlis Perundingan Rakyat.
2.Jabatan Perpaduan.
3.Rukun Negara.
4.New Economic Policy.

3 | Era of Social Solidarity (1971-2011)
After 40 years, Malaysia again facing ethnic conflict in 2001 known as ‘peristiwa Kg. Medan’, Selangor. This incident showed that economic factor as a base for social solidarity.

Hope for unity is still there: 1Malaysia

key to social cohesion Malaysia: a stable relationship, either at the stage S + S + M [Society, State, Market] - even during the global crisis.

Matured society: Love to argue but not to fight each other. Conflict exists, but still live in unity.

1 Iceland
2 Denmark
3 Austria
4 New Zealand
5 Switzerland
...
33.Malaysia


Ethnic Relations from the Perspective of Conflict
There was a view - a society that has a different cultures, languages, religions, will be detached and isolated.
Ethnic differences will create competition between ethnic groups.
Ethnic minority will underestimated by ethnic dominant.
The mass media often report ethnic relations in Malaysia in a narrow perspective.
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