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Chapt 13: Abolition & Social Reform Movements 1830-60

2nd Great Awakening -- Abolition/Anti-slavery movements -- Underground Railroad -- Leading abolitionists -- Early Women's Rights Movement/Seneca Falls -- AND Art Movts: Transcendentalism and Romanticism

J Swanson

on 31 March 2011

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Transcript of Chapt 13: Abolition & Social Reform Movements 1830-60

The 2nd Great Awakening A time of new emphasis on religion Making life better for others becomes a religious duty for many people Social Reform Movements Abolition & Anti-Slavery Movement Chapt 13 (The right to vote) Abolition = Abolish slavery (End slavery immediately) 1830-60s 1830-60s Abolitionists = people who believe in abolition (the most radical group in anti-slavery movement) (People who want slavery to end immediately) NOTE: Not everyone who was against slavery was an abolitionist (also the smallest group) Want to stop spread of slavery into the west Don't mind if it continues in the South (They don't want competition for jobs) 2.) Free-soilers Most Northerners disagree with slavery, but don't say or do much about it 1.) Women's Rights Many women are inspired to seek their own rights while fighting for civil rights for African Americans They demand: SUFFRAGE Right to own property & control their paychecks In some states only men could own property and a woman's paychecks were given directly to husbands or fathers Women will get the right to vote in all elections in 1920 William Lloyd Garrison Novelist Sojourner Truth Famous American Abolitionists Newspaper Editor Harriet Beecher Stowe Frederick Douglass Former Slave, Newspaper Editor, Author, Speaker Escaped slave and "Conductor" on the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman Helped slaves escape Former slave, speaker = Equal rights 1.) 2.) (19th Amendment) 3.) Some think slavery should go away gradually (Over a few decades) Underground Railroad A network of people who helped slaves escape to the North NOT A train or set of tracks
A tunnel
One route It is IT IS People who help escaped slaves by Hiding them Giving them food & supplies Guiding them on trails Arranging transportation This could be very dangerous work because slave-hunters had the power to search houses and have you arrested if you were caught helping escaped slaves. 1840s 3.) To be treated equal to men in the eyes of the law Seneca Falls
Convention 1st public meeting about rights for women Marks 'start' of organized women's movement 1848 Famous Women's Rights Activists Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Lucretia Mott

Susan B. Anthony

Lucy Stone

Sarah Grimke

Sojourner Truth "Declaration of Sentiments" Written during Seneca Falls Con. Modeled after Dec. of Ind. Expressed goals of
women's equality movement Other Movements Temperance Movement "Just Say No" to alcohol (beer and wine
didn't count
in early days) Blamed liquor for society's problems Prison Reform Tried to make conditions better in jails Urged prisons to offer education (instead of just punishment) Lead to separate facilities & courts for juveniles Dorthea Dix Education Reform Horace Mann Common-school Movement All students educated in same place, in same way Guarantees same education for boys & girls, rich & poor This is still what our school system is based on! Other Education Reforms Schools for disabled established Schools & colleges for women established Thomas Gallaudet Gallaudet University for hearing impared 1817 Catherine Beecher founds 1st female academy
Troy Female Seminary 1821 by Emma Willard
Mount Holyoke College by Mary Lyon 1837 Perkins School for the Blind -- 1831 by Samuel Gridley Howe in Massachusetts 1830-50s Chapt 13 Art Movements Transcendentalism Believed people could "rise above" material things (transcend = "rise above") People should do what they "feel" is right (Not what society and institutions tell them is right) People should live simply Thought people would be happier with
less "stuff" around them Tried to create "utopian communities" "Perfect communities" based on Transcendentalism ideas (They didn't work & often failed quickly) (Turns out that a society based on no rules and eveyone just doing what feels right to them at the time doesn't work out so well because people rarely "feel" like doing chores but they often "feel" that someone else should. Not only that, but "living simply" without modern conveniences requires a lot more work than they realized) A philosophy & literature style Famous transcendentalists wrote
Poetry Famous transcendentalist writers: Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
Margaret Fuller American Romanticism Emphasized beauty of Nature (not cities or famous people) Tried to bring out emotion in art & literature Today we'd say they were into "drama" Famous Romantics Nathaniel Hawthorne
Herman Melville
Edgar Allan Poe
Emily Dickinson
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Walt Whitman Trancendentalists and Romantics share many beliefs. Transcendentalism, however, is much closer to a religion than just a style of art and uses many Eastern religious practices to help believers "transcend" the material world. The "hippies" of the 1960s & 1970 were heavily influenced by transcendentalism and often repeated a lot of their ideas about ignoring society, living simply & creating utopian communities (that also failed). Also, just as hippies protested the Vietnam War, the Transcendentalists protested the Mexican War in 1846-48.
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