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Transcript of Behaviorism/ Constructivism
Belief that knowledge is not given by a teacher at the front of the room to students in their desks
Students are "constructing" new knowledge through activities and experiences the teachers provide
Students then integrate new knowledge from these experiences with pre-existing knowledge What is constructivist learning? How do students learn best? 1. Lecture: 5%
2. Reading: 10%
3. Audiovisual: 20%
4. Demonstration: 30%
5. Discussion group: 50%
6. Practice by doing: 75%
7. Teach others: 90% Order of Retention Rate: How to be an effective constructivist teacher: Show an example of constructivist teaching lesson
Teach perimeter, give ruler, tell to find, discuss real situation Perimeter Activity Put these 7 learning methods in order of retention rate:
a. discussion group
b. practice by doing
g. teaching others When creating experiences/ activities in the classroom ask students to classify, analyze, predict, imagine, invent, and create
Before teaching a concept ask students what they already know
Put students in situations to challenge previous beliefs to encourage discussion about what they just learned
In a lesson plan, do not set an objective or goal Teachers: make problem-solving scenarios
Students are actively involved in decisions
Prior knowledge/ past experiences help shape student connection to new material
Students use higher level processing skills
Apply new knowledge to daily lives Recap
-Jacueline Grennan Brooks "As long as there are people asking each other questions, we have had constructivist classrooms. Constructivism, the study of learning, is about how we all make sense of our world, and that really hasn't changed." Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. --John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930 John Watson (1878-1958) Emphasizes learning of facts and skills that authorities have decided are important
Understanding basic skills and core subject knowledge
The behaviorist is not concerned with how or why knowledge is obtained, but rather if the correct response is given
Typical classroom instruction: rote memorization, and drill and practice through repetition
Students can be taught through the use of reward and/or punishment What is behaviorist learning? Learner uses low level processing skills to understand material
The material is often isolated from real-world contexts or situations
Little responsibility is placed on the learner concerning his/her own education
Responsibility is more placed on the teacher to present the information How students learn: A typical classroom layout: state the objective and expected outcome, teach the lesson, repetition
Handouts and visual aids are sufficient ways to grab attention
Teaches particular information or skills but teachers don't put this back into real situations How to be an effective behaviorist teacher: Chunking
Playing Games Memory Strategy With your think teams discuss your favorite memory strategy.
Do you always use the same strategy, different ones, one not on the list.
How would you use them to help your students? Activity Recap: Memorization of facts and skills
Important facts and skills decided by teacher/school board
Through use of reward/punishment, students learn to give the correct response American Progressive Movement in late 19th century
"...bring the benefits of science to society."
William James proposed "psychology" break from philosophy
Early 20th century: Break from Germany.
1906: James Angell
"...behavior and its results were the focus of psychology." Where did Behaviorism Start? Early 20th century: Behaviorism was dominant
What about inside the minds?
Led to Cognitive Psychology around 1950s
Constructivism took Cognitive Psychology a bit further
Focus on how we as human beings learn So, what about Constructivism? So how are these two different? Behaviorism Focuses on correct and incorrect behaviors.
Relies on conditioning to establish correct thinking.
Aims to achieve the class objective for the day. Constructivism Focuses on correct thought structure
Strives to help students reason things out for themselves
Guides students to the answers instead of making them act a certain way. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • A psychologist/biologist from Switzerland
• Began his studies on children in 1920
• Believed that as humans we learn by building from one logical structure to the next
• Experience and Active Learning are Essential
• Education should be built on the curiosity and intrigue of the student
• Adaption and Organization John Dewey (1859-1952) • An American Philosopher
• Believed that students could learn on their own with the guidance of their instructor
• In classrooms, students should engage in real life scenarios and situations
• Concluded that inquiry is a key part of constructivist learning Adaption:
• To survive, we must adapt
• We can do this through assimilation and accommodation
• The mind is organized in complex, but overlapping ways
• Cognitive Structures form •Wrote "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It".
•Believed behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed.
•Proposed the idea of an objective psychology of behavior called behaviorism. John Watson (1878-1958) I• •Developed the idea of “operant conditioning”
•Believed behaviors were shaped by environment and man had no control over them. B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Ivan M. Sechenov (1829-1905) •Founder of Russian objective psychology
•One of the first behaviorists
•Believed that external stimulation causes all behavior
•All behavior can be explained through the inhibition or excitation of reflexes
•1863 - Ivan Sechenov's Reflexes of the Brain was published. He introduced the concept of inhibitory responses in the central nervous system. Assimilation:
• One adds new things to what they already know
• Creating a new category of understanding
• The motivation for learning and change in a young person Constructivism