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Transcript of Balanced Literacy
Marilyn Jager Adams proposed a balanced approach to literacy in 1990.
This proposal was based upon the work of Patricia Cunningham, Richard Allington, Dale Willows and Adams herself, along with other reading experts. The Balanced Literacy Approach is based on Noam Chomsky's conception of linguistic development. Chomsky believed that humans have a natural language capacity, that we are built to communicate through words. PRINCIPLES Used for real communication You don't focus on errors Learning involves taking risks Topics should be of students' interest Teachers and students are all learners, risk takers, and decision makers. G O A L The goal is to help students become readers and writers who enjoy and value literacy. Student or Teacher Centered? STUDENT CENTERED! BALANCED LITERACY Balanced Literacy is characterized by explicit skill instruction and the use of authentic texts. Through various modalities, the teacher implements a well-planed comprehensive literacy program that reflects gradual release of control, whereby responsibility is gradually shifted from the teacher to the students. The labels to, with and by characterize the modalities as follow: The teacher models by reading or writing to the students in the following modalities:
Interactive Read Aloud
Demonstration or Modeled Writing
The teacher reads or writes with the students in the following modalities:
Shared Writing or Interactive Writing
Guided Reading (contains independent reading with close conferring) Reading and writing is done by the students, independently within the following modalities:
Independent reading (with teacher observation and conferring)
Writing process (with teacher observation and conferring) Direct instruction in Phonics and Word Study are also included in the Balanced Literacy Approach. For advanced readers, the teacher focuses on the etymology of a word. Students who are reading at this stage are engaged in analyzing the patterns of word derivations, root words, prefixes, and suffixes (morphology). The teacher begins every lesson by activating students' prior knowledge through discussion and continues this throughout the lesson to help students make connections to other books as well as their own experiences. Students are taught to use comprehension strategies including:
Relating Background Knowledge
Comparing and Contrasting
Page 9 Page 9 Page 11 Page 40 Page 46 Page 50 Page 54 Page 59 Page 63 Balanced Literacy: Sample Application Exercise I Provide three examples of:
Adjectives II Gather in groups of three to four students. Write a short poem of at least four verses with the examples of the verbs, nouns, and adjectives provided. You will be able to add other verbs, nouns and adjectives as long as they rhyme with the examples provided. Language is a process of free creation; its laws and principles are fixed, but the manner in which the principles of generation are used is free and infinitely varied. Even the interpretation and use of words involves a process of free creation.
- Noam Chomsky
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! =)