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HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY

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Cameet Appadu

on 16 July 2014

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Transcript of HISTORY OF TYPOGRAPHY

HISTORY
OF
TYPOGRAPHY

Chinese invent movable type. Wooden movable type was first developed around 1040 AD by Bi Sheng (990–1051), as described by the Chinese scholar Shen Kuo (1031–1095), but was abandoned in favour of clay movable types due to the presence of wood grains and the unevenness of the wooden type after being soaked in ink.
1040 CE
Ku Cameet Appadu
Johann Gutenberg invents movable metal type and produces a 2-volume printed Bible. 180 copies are printed, 48 are known to survive. Gutenberg tried to emulate handwritten books and used a blackletter type style. Each piece of type must be set by hand and removed from a form after printing, which nonetheless represents a vast improvement in speed and accuracy over hand-written books.
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50
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Nicolas Jenson develops the first Roman typeface, characterized by contrast, bracketed serifs, an oblique stress, and very accurately aligned baselines.
1458
Francesco Griffo and Aldus Mantius develop the first Italic type. Mantius set entire books in Italic, saving space and paper.
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Claude Garamond introduces his Roman typefaces. His letters moved away from emulating written forms, and toward refined, accurate, and consistent forms. Garamond was the first full-time type founder.
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William Caslon designed a type family that included both Roman and Italic. It quickly became a standard for English-language printing, and remains popular in English-speaking countries today.
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John Baskerville introduces the first Transitional Style typeface, originally called “improved type”. This type style used vertical stress and flatter serifs. Baskerville also improved printing ink and paper in order to better reproduce his typefaces.
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Giambattista Bodoni introduces the first Modern Style typeface. This type style is characterized by high contrast between thick and thin, vertical stress, and unbracketed serifs.
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William Caslon IV introduces the first Sans Serif typeface. It is referred to a “grotesque” in Europe and “gothic” in America, as many felt it was strange and barbaric-looking.

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Mass production creates a need for advertising. The first decorative, display, and slab serif types are created for advertising purposes. This type is cut from wood, not metal, allowing larger letter size and ornamental detail.

circa

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Darius Wells, producer of large wood type, and inventor of the mechanical router, publishes the first catalogue of typefaces known in the U.S.

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William Austin Burt patents the first practical writing machine, which lead to the typewriter. The typewriter necessitates the invention of monospaced typefaces.

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Otto Mergenthaler designs the first Linotype machine, which is operated by a typist at a keyboard and produces lines of type in solid lead pieces. This vastly increases the speed of typesetting.
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Ira Rubel introduces offset lithography. This method prints from a plate onto a rubber roller then onto the paper. This reduced preparation time and allowed presses to run faster. Offset printing has been continuously improved and remains the most popular form of commercial printing today.
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Photon, The first commercial phototypesetting machine is introduced. Phototypesetting uses photographic masters and allows type to be scaled. It also allows new possibilities in type design, special effects, and type setting. Phototypesetting slowly becomes popular over the next several decades.
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Paul Renner designs Futura, based on simplified, geometrically shaped letterforms. Futura is considered a definitive Geometric Sans Serif, and remains popular and frequently used.
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Adrian Frutiger designs the Univers family in a systematic variety of weights and widths.
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Max Miedinger, with Eduard Hoffmann, develop Helvetica, designing it for clarity and neutrality. It is considered a definitive Grotesque, and remains in wide use today.
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The Apple Macintosh computer is released. It provides a user-friendly computer interface, and introduces the concept of “desktop publishing”. This revolutionizes typography, allowing designers to do their own typesetting and typeface design.
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The OpenType font format is introduced as a replacement for the competing PostScript and TrueType formats. OpenType is compatible with both Mac and Windows, allows larger character sets, and special programming for alternate and special characters.
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The Web Open Font Format (WOFF) is developed. It enables the distribution of compressed font data online, allowing the use of any font as live text in web design. This capability is widely referred to as “web fonts”, and it allows greater typographic possibilities online.
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1440 CE
:

http://www.counterspace.us/typography/timeline/

1450-1996
:

A Typographic Workbook, Second Edition, Kate Clair and Cynthia Busic-Snyder

2009
:

http://www.w3.org/TR/WOFF/


Citations
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Typography 1 Summer 2014
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