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Anatomy and Physiology

Lecture at Texas Tech

Cindy Middaugh

on 19 February 2015

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Transcript of Anatomy and Physiology

Jefferson HS
Univ of Texas at Austin
BS in Kinesiology
Texas State University
Doctorate in Physical Therapy
Manual Therapy Institute
Fellowship for Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapy


Hobbies - Family time, football, smoking meats, cycling, reading.
Dr. Middaugh
What is Anatomy & Physiology
The study of the
body's structure, and
how it cells, tissues, and
organs are assembled.

Study of the
body's workings and
how it functions.

Silva Magnet HS
Univ of Texas at El Paso
BS in Nursing
Univ of Texas at El Paso
MS in Nursing Education
In-patient rehab

Hobbies - exercising, reading, making lists and checking them off, organizing things
By: Dr. David Middaugh, PT, DPT
Cindy Middaugh, RN, BSN, CRRN

Anatomy & Physiology
Much of what we know helps
us prevent, treat, or alleviate disease, and allows us to appreciate the latest wonder treatment, or take a medication that makes us feel better.
Skeletal Continue
Talk about the function, types of bones
in the next few slides

Skin, Hair, and Nails
Lymphatic and Immune
Nervous System
Cardiovascular System
Respiratory System
Study Tips
Components of the
Lymph System
“Life shrinks or expands in
proportion to one’s courage.”
-Anais Nin
Bones are a solid, yet movable framework that serves as attachments for muscles.

Axial is
Light blue
everything else
Bones are attached to each other via ligaments, at joints.
Bone Marrow has stem cells that can become RBC, WBC and platelets.
Skeletal Muscles attach to bones via tendons. They work to move the skeletal system in space.
Involuntary muscle
Blood Vessels
Digestive tract
Integration with nervous system for voluntary and involuntary control
Brain, spinal cord
Peripheral Nerves
Autonomic (Fight/flight)
Sympathetic NS
Parasymphathetic NS
Nerve Cell
Interrelationships of
chemical defenses
Lymphatic and Immune
provide vital resistance to many threats infectious diseases and
malfunctions of internal processes
The slowly circulating lymph fluids
distribute nutrients and collect waste.
delivers immunity-providing white
blood cells when needed
Sensory info is carried from the body to the brain.
Pain, temperature, light touch, deep touch, vibration, two-point discrimination, proprioception, vision, auditory...........

Brain is the home of
consciousness. Ideas and thoughts are born here. Then the body carries out the actions necessary to make it a reality.
1. White blood cells (such as lymphocytes)
2. Antibodies
3. Spleen
4. Tonsils and adenoids
5. Thymus

6. Lymph fluid
7. Lymph vessels, nodes
("glands'), and ducts
Form the outer protective covering
regulates body temperature
subcutaneous fat acts as an insulator, energy store, physical shock absorber
Skin, Hair and Nails
The largest organ in your
Communicate via hormones
Maintains optimal internal environment
Govern: growth, puberty,
reproductive activity

Closely linked to the nervous system to allow for dual monitoring
Pumps to tissues:
Immune Cells
Removes from tissues
Carbon Dioxide
Cellular Waste
Blood vessels
Composed of 30 feet (9 m) of tubing (various sizes)
Pituitary gland
Thyroid gland
Thymus gland
Adrenal glands
Ovaries (in females)
Testes ( in males)
Digestive System
Functions: chews food, stores and then
digests it, eliminates waste products, passes nutrients to the major glands, the liver!
Proper and healthy function of immune, nervous system and psychological state affect digestion
Voice Dream App
Great to listen to notes
Little Facts about the GI system
1. Flatulence gets its smell from bacteria.
2. Food doesn't need gravity to get to your stomach.
3. Laundry detergents take cues from the digestive system.
4. Your stomach doesn't do most of the digestion (mostly churns food)
5. The surface area of the small intestine is huge
(about 2,700 sq feet HUGE!)
Little Facts about the GI system
6. The digestive system is cancer prone.

In 2009, colorectal cancer killed almost 52,000 people in the U.S., more than any other cancer except lung cancer.
8. Stomach rumbling can happen at any time,
not just when you're hungry

10. Stomachs vary in the animal kingdom
Cows and other "ruminants" — including giraffes, deer and cattle — have four-chambered stomachs, which help them digest their plant-based food.

But some animals — including seahorses, lungfishes and platypuses — have no stomach. Their food goes from the esophagus straight to the intestines.
Nasal/Oral Passages
Pharynx (Throat)
Larynx (Voicebox)
Trachea<>Primary Brochiole<>
Secondary Bronchiole<>
Tertiary Bronchiole<>Alveoli
Lung partitions

Total surface area = tennis court

7. The stomach must protect itself — from itself.

Cells along the inner wall of the stomach secrete roughly 1/2 gallon of hydrochloric acid each day, which helps kill bacteria and aids in digestion.

To protect itself from the corrosive acid, the stomach lining has a thick coating of mucus. But this mucus can't buffer the digestive juices indefinitely, so the stomach produces a new coat of mucus every two weeks.

9. Physicians treated peptic ulcers incorrectly for nearly a century.

Borborygmi, or stomach rumblings, are the result of peristalsis in the stomach and small intestines

When the tract is empty borborygmi are louder because there's nothing in there to muffle the sound.

Formation of urine by the
kidneys eliminates wastes and excess substances from the blood, helping maintain the body's correct balance of water, fluid, salts, and minerals.

“Don’t let schooling interfere with your education.”
-Mark Twain
“In the development of wisdom, one must gather the firewood of knowledge and ignite it by striking the flint of courage against the rock of self-discipline. Thus creating fires of understanding. Wisdom, therefore, is knowledge on fire.”
Urine is controlled by several hormones and is influenced by:
Controlled by how
much water we
nutrients and different
types of foods
How hydrated are you?
External conditions
At night your body releases ADH

Blood flow
Study Tips #1
1. Practice retrieving new learning from memory
Self quizzing
Make this your primary study strategy in place of rereading
Ask yourself:
What are the key ideas?
What terms or ideas are new to me?
How would you define them?
How do the ideas relate to what I already know
Study Tip #1
Set aside time every week throughout the semester to quiz yourself on the material in a course, both the current week's work and the material covered

The harder it is for you to recall new learning from memory, the greater the benefit of doing so.
Making errors won't set you back as long as you
correct your answers and your mistakes

Rereading causes you to do 2 things:
Misleading indicator of what you
have learned
Creates the false impression
that you will remember the material
A habit of regular retrieval
practice throughout the duration
of a course puts an end to cramming
and all-nighters
Over the course of a semester, as
you quiz yourself
Ask yourself how that knowledge
relates to what you have
subsequently learned
-Quiz yourself using NCLEX

Study Tip #2
Another tip is to interleave
the study of 2 or more topics
Repeating seems like the way to go because:
You can usually see improvement
But this type of information comes from short-term memory and quickly fades!

It will lead you down a path you may not know where you will end up
If you space out your studying so
a little forgetting has happened
you are "reloading" it.
Essentially recalling it from long-
term memory
Once you've reached the point where you
understand a new problem type and it's solution

But you're still a little shaky in your knowledge
Mix it up!

Scatter it with other topics
Example: Pharmocology and Med-Surg
Mixing it up improves
your ability to discriminate!

Helps you out in the
real world!
Study Tip #3

Watch a YouTube Video
The more you can relate how things work together,
the stronger the connections you create to remember
it later!
Study Tip # 4

What would happen if the light turned green
while people were still walking across this
Solve the puzzle!
Before being shown the answer!
Ask yourself:
-What do I expect to learn
today when I read or I'm in
Study Tip #5
What went well?
What could
have gone
What can I not see clearly yet?
Study Tip #6
Quiz yourself on NCLEX questions!
Study Tip #7
Creates structures in your
brain to help make it
easier to retrieve what you
Interleave: to arrange in or as if in alternate layers
Full transcript