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on 5 April 2014

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Transcript of COACHING!

Goal Setting
Goal Setting- goal setting is one of the most important skills taught to an athlete in order to achieve optimal performance. The goal setting process helps the athlete to understand where they currently are with their performance levels and what they must do to accomplish different goals whether it is at an amateur or professional level. Someone who specializes in the mental aspects of the game helps the athlete to set goals that are focused on the process of the goals rather than the outcome. There are two different types of goal setting which are subjective and objective. Objective goal setting are goals such as going out and trying the best the athlete can. Objective goals are goals such as improving success or pass completion rate from 30% to 60%.

There are also outcome, performance and process goals.
- Outcome goals are either winning or losing the match or specific results of the competition.
- Performance goals are related to specific statistics related to the performance that the athlete is motivated on improving. For example someone playing golf will want to improve the amount of greens that they hit from 80% to 90%.
- Process goals which is where the athlete will focus on something whilst performing a sport skill. This can include someone who plays golf and sticks to the same pre-shot routine before every single shot to ensure they hit more greens as previously picked. (Human Kinetics, Leith, 2003)

Slide 1 - Modelling
Slide 3 - Simulation
Slide 4 - Goal Setting
Slide 5 - Effective demonstration
Slide 6 - Reference Slide
Simulation techniques are used by a coach to set up a desired environment that imitates a competitive situation.
Placing a team or an individual athlete under certain conditions which reflect those of a competition.

Can be used when the techniques needed to perform are complex and have to be done under pressure e.g. chest control in football in a small space to manoeuvre similar to the pressure of an opponent marking the performer closely in a match

The positive of simulation is that it is entirely controlled by the coach and athlete which means that session and drills can be moulded around the team or athletes ability. The intensity and difficulty of the controlled drill can be adapted to stretch the performer or simplify the tasks.

The negative of this type of training is that it will never completely reflect the in-game situations. This means that if the performer is in an incorrect mind-set to treat the conditions the same as in a competitive situation, the athlete will not improve through simulation coaching techniques.

Another limitation of this technique is the access to scientific facilities and/or the time to focus solely on one individual’s single aspect of performance. This means that this type of coaching is often reserved for the elite.

Coaches will use modelling to demonstrate what they expect from their chosen athlete and make sure they know exactly what is needed to accomplish the end goal.

There are two forms of modelling:
• Coach or performer modelling
• Video demonstration

A model is described as an example of the skill, technique or activity which a coach wants its athlete to master. An example of this would be, when delivering a session with the aim to improve the player’s ability to correctly perform a Golf swing. A coach may use a model of this action to help show what is expected.

Modelling is used to help the athlete’s paint a picture in their minds, pointing out the key technical instruction for the specific skill or activity the coach would like them to gradually achieve. A great example of use technology used by coaches in a variety of sports is Dartfish tag as it provides the coaches with the opportunity to slow down the movements and pause actions. This will allow the coaches to demonstrate complex skills. “It can also show two performances simultaneously to compare techniques” (Mark Adams, BTEC Level 3 Sport and Exercise science, 2010).

Effective Demonstration
- Demonstration of a technique can be used to visually show off what it is that is expected of a performer, they are freely able to understand the actions that may not be understood from just verbally communicating the technique
- The techniques can be practiced efficiently by the people watching as they know the exact movements and techniques to use, this provides a safer training place as incorrect techniques can lead to injury to the one doing it and also to performers around them, for example performing an incorrect tennis stroke repeatedly will cause tennis elbow, this puts the performer out of training (Boyd & McLeodjr, 1973)
- Peer learning can be encouraged as others can see the technique being performed by other performers and so they will learn the technique themselves
- The coach can use students to demonstrate it, this promotes confidence in these students and other students (Frances, 2013)

Factors that are against it
- If an overcomplicated technique is demonstrated it can be too complicated for the participants to understand, they can’t repeat it
- If the technique is performed incorrectly by the coach then this will be picked up by the performers who will do the same technique
- Verbal communication about the technique may be discouraged as performers have been shown the technique
- May be hard for the coach to demonstrate the technique as well as explain it, especially in an overly complicated technique, where in order to explain the technique has to be broken down significantly into different techniques
- The practical session may not be appropriate for demonstrating the technique
- The Level of the athlete’s participating in the effective demonstration may determine whether or not the coach demonstrates the technique, at a lower level, the coach will be able to competently show off the techniques but if coaching an elite level the level of the coaching technique may not be sufficient and so video demonstration is required (Adams et. Al)

Adams, M, Barker, R. Davies, W. Gledhill, A. Lydon, C. Mulligan, C. Sergison, A. Sutton, L. Wilmot, N. (2010) BTEC Sports Level 3

Boyd, B & McLeordjr, C (1973). Tennis Elbow. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery , 55(6), p. 1183-1187

Fraces, P (2013) techniques: Effective Demonstration. Sports Coaching. p. 1-4

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