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Chapter 5: Improving Memory & Reading

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by

Abigail Deleon

on 15 March 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Improving Memory & Reading

MYTHS ABOUT READING
If I read a chapter, I should remember everything
I don't need to read if I go to class
Practice makes perfect
Learn the facts that will be on the test example -->Mark
-->highlight
--> underline
-->color code TextBook MAIN IDEA
KeyPoints Math -know basic steps
IMPROVING MEMORY
AND READING Ch5 USING MNEMONICS and
OTHER MEMORY TRICKS ACROSTICS Helps to organize material Memorizing facts Understanding or thinking critically
about information
Rhymes, songs, poems, or sentences
List key ideas + words that start w/first letter of each Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, Variety
example Kings Play Cards On Fairly Good Soft Velvet ACRONYMS 1st letter of each word to make a
new word
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
And
Telephase
= IPMAT Huron
Ontario
Michigan
Erie
Superior
= HOMES PEG SYSTEMS Each # associated w/object based on rhyme
Memorize objects & use w/mental pictures to recall
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10 Bun
Shoe
Tree
Door
Hive Sticks
Heaven
Gate
Wine
Hen example Grocery list: milk, eggs, carrots, butter
LOCI SYSTEMS Use familiar places to aid the memory
- Your house, a hallway, your body parts
Introduction 1st point 2nd point VISUAL CUES Put your books in front
of the door Look for landmarks
to remember where you
parked SAY IT ALOUD Remember items by repeating them out loud
Make a rhyme or song to remember something HAVE A ROUTINE Mental checklist before you leave the house
Put your keys or wallet in the same place every time
WRITE IT DOWN Easiest & most effective way
To-do lists
Tape a note to your mirror
Write flash cards
REMEMBERING NAMES Make sure you heard the name right
Immediately use the name
- Say, “It’s nice to meet you, _____”
- Mentally repeat it in your head 5 times
Make a rhyme
Make an association
- “She/he looks like my friend ____”
"Nice to meet you, Nancy" "Nancy, Nancy, Nancy,
Nancy, Nancy." "Fancy Nancy" "Hmm...she looks like my friend's
sister Lisa." OPTIMIZING YOUR BRAIN POWER The key to a maintaining a healthy mind = staying mentally active SUGGESTIONS TO STRENGTHEN YOUR MIND from the head of the UCLA Brain Institute 1. Jigsaw & crossword puzzles
2. Play a musical instrument
3. Fix something
4. Participate in the arts (draw or paint something
5. Dance
6. Aerobic exercise
7. Meet & interact w/interesting people
8. Read challenging books
9. Take a college class

AEROBIC EXERCISE Improves the flow of oxygen to your brain
Can help grow new nerve cells in the brain

- Reverse aging process
- Delay onset of Alzheimer’s GETTING STARTED WITH A NEW TEXT: SKIMMING
Quickly read the preface/introduction
Look at the major topics
Spend 5-15 minutes looking over the book
Notice the items in the back of the book SYSTEM FOR READING A COLLEGE TEXT: SQ4R
To store info in long-term memory
Recognize major points
Organize material
Review
and use critical thinking skills STEPS FOR SQ4R
1. Survey and Question
2. Read and Recite
3. Review and Reflect GET ENOUGH REST Sleep allows brain to “take out the trash”
Sleep makes for optimum performance the next day EAT A BALANCED, LOW-FAT DIET Brain needs nutrients, vitamins, and minerals
Low-fat diets have been shown to improve mental performance EAT PROTEINS & CARBOHYDRATES Proteins = building blocks of neurotransmitters that increase mental activity
Carbs provide energy and = building blocks of neurotransmitters that have a calming effect DRINK CAFFEINE IN MODERATION USE SAFETY GEAR Improving Your Memory Sensory Register- “the initial moment of perception
Short-Term Memory- Lasts about half a minute.
Long-Term Memory- Used for permanent information storage. We Frequently Forget Unpleasant experiences
Names of people/places/things
Numbers and dates We Tend to Remember Pleasant experiences
Material that is important to us
What we have put an effort into learning Theories of Forgetting Minimizing Forgetting Most forgetting occurs within the first 20 mins, immediate review within the first 20mins would prevent most forgetting By spending about 20mins in review time you can remember 90-100% of the material. Short periods of review are much easier to accomplish tan spending larger periods of review. 1.I Forgot- Stored in STM but didn’t go to LTM. You didn’t forget it, you just never learned it.

2.The Mental Blur- If you study material and don’t understand it, you wont remember it.

3.The Decay Theory- If you do not use the information, you will lose it.

4.Interference Theory- New memories interfere with old memories and old memories interfere with new memories. Usually when memories have similarities.

5.Reactive Interference- We tend not to remember ideas or subjects that we dislike.

6.Reconstruction Theory- What we remember becomes distorted over time.

7.Motivated Forgetting- We choose to remember pleasant experiences and forget unpleasant experiences.
IMPROVING YOUR READING DON'T ABUSE DRUGS & ALCOHOL How does your memory work? How can you remember what you study? What mnemonics and other memory tricks can you use to remember? How can you optimize your brain power? How can you improve your reading skills? How do you mark a textbook efficiently? What reading strategies can you apply for different subjects? How can you improve your concentration while reading? How can you minimize forgetting? HOW CAN I REMEMBER WHAT I STUDY? MEANINGFUL ORGANIZATION
VISUALIZATION DEVELOP AN INTEREST
- We tend to remember what interests us
- Approaching your studies with a positive attitude will help
you find something interesting and make it easier to
remember
- The more you learn about the topic, the more interesting it
becomes
- Look for personal meaning


SEE THE BIG PICTURE FIRST
- It is easy to get lost when focusing on details without
looking at the main ideas
- The first step in reading is to skim the chapter headings to
form a mental outline of what you will be learning, then read
for details.
- Highlight or underline key ideas to focus on the main points
and organize what you are learning
- It is most efficient to identify seven or fewer key ideas and
then cluster less important ideas under major headings


INTEND TO REMEMBER
- Tell yourseld that you are going to remember
- If you intend to remember, you will pay attention, make an
effort to understand, and use memory techniques to
strengthen your memory


DISTRIBUTE THE PRACTICE
- Learning small amounts of material and reviewing
frequently is more effective than a marathon study session
- A learning technique : SAFMEDS, which stands for Say all
for one minute Each Day and Shuffle


CREATE A BASIC BACKGROUND
- You remember information by connecting it to things you
already know
- The more you know, the easier it is to make connections
that make remembering easier
- Enhance your basic background by reading a variety of
books


RELAX WHILE STUDYING
- Brain works much better when it is relaxed
-Use distributed practice to take away some of the pressure
of learning; take brakes between periods of learning
- Plan ahead so you do not have to cram
-Try a physical activity or relaxation exercise before study
sessions
- It is a good idea to stop and come back to your studies
later if you are feeling frustrated - When learning new material, cluster facts and ideas into categories that are meaningful to you - Powerful memorization techniques is visualization
- If you can focus on the words and accompany them with pictures, you are using your brain in the most efficient way -Understand
-Keep Up Science -UnderstandPrinciples
-Practice
-Scientific Method Social and Behavioral Sciences -Analyze Research
-Know application of theories
-Details Literature -Use quotes
-know character names and plot Comprehension Study: to review unfamiliar material
Slow Read:to understand difficult material
Rapid Reading:to review easy material
Skimming:look for specific info. Concentration -Be active reader -Solve personal problems
-Purpose for reading -Worry later
-Task in Small Parts -Focus Attention RECITATION - Recitation, rehearsal, and reviewing the ideas are powerful techniques for learning
- It is through recitation that we keep ideas in our mind long enough to store them in LTM
- Say outloud to yourself the material you want to remeber
- You will also need to review the information you have storeed in LTM periodically so it is more accesible
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