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Artificial Selection Technologies

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caroline hummell

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Artificial Selection Technologies

Artificial Selection Technologies
What is Artificial Selection?
Artificial selection is the process by which humans breed animals and plants for particular traits. It is also known as selective breeding. Bred animals are known as breeds and bred plants are known as varieties. If two animals are crossed, they are referred to as crossbreeds. If two plants are crossed, they are referred to as hybrids.
Plant Breeding
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques. Two of these techniques are cultigens and cultivars.
Animal Breeding
Animal breeding is the selection of animals to be bred with one another due to superior growth rate or product production (ex. eggs, milk, meat, or wool). An example is livestock breeding: cattle are selectively bred to be big, fine-boned, and extra meaty. There are 4 categories of animal breeding. They are purebred breeding, backyard breeding, inbreeding, and crossbreeding.
Perspectives on Artificial Selection
Why Do Humans Do It?
Artificial selection is carried out so we can breed organisms with desired characteristics and so we can maintain these desirable characteristics for future generations. Organisms are bred with other organisms that display same/similar characteristics in order to ensure some genetic continuity. For instance, thoroughbred horses are selectively bred with one another to produce offspring that possess a phenotype beneficial for racing.
Next, we will go into detail about the two main types of artificial selection: plant breeding and animal breeding.
History of Artificial Selection
Humans have been partaking in artificial selection for many years. In fact, it is noted that artificial selection was prevalent as far back as the Roman times. It was not until the 18th century, however, that it truly took off. Robert Bakewell successfully bred sheep, horses, and cattle during the British Agricultural Revolution. His breeds were ideal for the market due to their large, meaty, and fine-boned structures. This initiated the widespread practice of artificial selection all over the world. In 1859, Charles Darwin coined the term "selective breeding".
Hello, I'm Robert Bakewell. I
am well known for my
excellent breeds of sheep,
horse, and cattle
Purebred Breeding
A purebred animal is one that displays a pure strain of traits obtained through many generations of controlled breeding. Purebred breeding happens between two purebreds and the offspring are considered the highest pedigree possible due to the fact that are viewed as having the fittest phenotypes. While it takes a significant amount of time in order to establish purebred breeding, the results are worth it. Purebred breeding is generally used for horse racing and dog shows.
Backyard Breeding
Backyard breeding is when animals are bred without registration and for the purpose of profit. It is mainly seen when pet owners bred two types of animals from the same species with the intention of selling the offspring to others. The animals are bred to produce a desirable physical outcome that will appeal to potential buyers. For instance, a labrador retriever is bred with a poodle to produce a "labrapoodle"... a cute, cuddly backyard bred popular in society.
Inbreeding is an artificial selection technology where animals that are closely related are bred with one another. It provides a greater chance for recessive genes to be expressed phenotypically. It was quite common in the past due to people of higher power wanting to keep their "royal blood" within the family. It is still occurring in areas of the world today where access to unrelated partners is not readily available. Inbreeding is frowned upon, however, because of the health risks it presents. If two parents, who are blood-related, carry the recessive gene for a certain abnormality, there is a high risk that this gene will become dominant within the child, causing a birth defect. and complications later on in life.
Cross Breeding
Cross breeding is a process of producing offspring from parents who come from different species. The most familiar example of cross breeding is the cross between a lion and a tiger, creating the "liger".
Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Selection
-It creates new genes for plants and animals.
-Animals can produce more products ex. Pigs can be bred to be bigger in size; cows can be bred to produce more milk, etc.
-Farmers and breeders will get better business. Farmers will be able to produce bigger and better plants, while breeders will be able to create new types of animals.
-Can create stronger and faster animals and unlimited to the options of artificial selection, meaning you can combine whatever traits you want from any plant or animals and create new organisms.
-Artificial selection can create mutations for animals. For example, let's say a breeder wanted a bull dog with an extremely large head. This resulted in the dog getting an enormous head and the poor guy could not carry the weight of its head. The bulldog could not walk due to the weight of its head and would always tip over.
-Artificial breeding is very expensive.
-Artificial selection is not part of "Gods" plan for the world and evolution.
-It is inhumane to be breeding animals for desired traits.
Although it is expensive, artificial selection is actually great for the economy because it brings business for farmers and breeders. This is due to the fact that farmers are able to produce bigger, better plants while breeders can create efficient, beautiful animals. The products of artificial selection are generally more valuable in the market than natural products.
Artificial selection is viewed as immoral by most because it can involve the inhumane treatment of animals and it is not a natural process.
God created everything in this world the way He intended it to be. Artificial selection goes against God's intentions because humans are selectively breeding organisms to benefit us. It is as though we are playing God.
The government supports artificial selection because it benefits many businesses and individuals, bettering the economy and thus bringing in more money for the government.
Cultigens are plants that have been specifically altered by humans, being the result of artificial selection. They are man-made plants of commerce that are used in horticulture, agriculture and forestry.
Cultivars are plants or groupings of plants selected for desirable characteristics that can be maintained by propagation. Majority of cultivars grow from cultivation but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular garden plants like roses, camellias, and daffodils are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for flower colour and form. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader grouping, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.
Although there is some skepticism regarding artificial selection, for the most part, many individuals in society approve of it. The process provides people with animals they can use in competition, pets of all shapes and sizes, and most importantly, food that is viewed as better than the natural products.
Artificial selection is a practice that is used by cultures all throughout the world. Aside from North America, countries like China are using the technique in experiments and labs for research purposes. For instance, the Chinese are currently performing artificial selection of the melanocortin receptor 1 gene in Chinese domestic pigs to determine if the coat colour of these pigs is a "domestication trait".
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