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The Building Blocks of an Effective Essay: Thesis, Body, Conclusion
Transcript of The Building Blocks of an Effective Essay: Thesis, Body, Conclusion
What does an effective
conclusion look like?
What's the BIG IDEA?
Connecting Body Paragraphs!
ANATOMY OF A BODY PARAGRAPH
EXAMPLE OF A STRONG
What is the purpose
of an introduction?
Basic Essay Structure
This handout will address the three essay components you will plan to include in most basic academic essays.
: Your introduction catches the attention of your reader and presents the essay's main subject. Your THESIS is placed at the end of your introduction. Your thesis is an assertion that a paper is designed to explain, prove, explore, or support. In a short 4-6 paragraph essay, the introduction is only 1 paragraph long.
The “heart” of your essay. You support your thesis in the BODY of your essay. Each paragraph of your body focuses on one distinct point or idea.
: The final paragraph(s) of a paper.
A conclusion emphasizes your main idea, reflects on what has been learned, and provides a resolution to the essay. In a short 4-6 paragraph essay, the conclusion is
only 1 paragraph long.
A. “Hook”: you want to interest the reader and catch their attention.
B. Inform: you want to inform the reader of your main subject.
C. Thesis: Your thesis is usually the FINAL sentence of your introduction. It is especially important to place your thesis at the end of your introduction when you write AP Exam essays; you want AP graders to immediately know which statement is your thesis. How does a thesis differ from a topic? The TOPIC of your paper is the general subject you are exploring. The THESIS is an assertion that a paper is designed to explain, prove, explore, or support; a thesis takes a STANCE or states an OPINION you will prove.
A successful introduction for a short 4-6
paragraph essay is often 3-6 sentences long.
1. An effective thesis expresses a distinct point of view.
Remember that your thesis is a strong assertion that demonstrates your perspective on a subject - any subject! One of the primary questions that your reader will ask is: Can I clearly understand this writer's point of view, idea, or stance? Don't be afraid to have a strong opinion - as long as you can support it!
2. An effective thesis is always SPECIFIC. A strong thesis statement should show precisely what you plan to discuss. This means listing the devices, elements, or types of examples you will discuss RIGHT IN YOUR THESIS!
Examples of a weak thesis:
Debate can be a great thing to do.
Shakespeare's plays have a lot of rhetorical power.
Examples of a stronger thesis:
Competitive forensics is a valuable activity for learning new things, making new friends, and gaining new experiences.
Shakespeare's Julius Caesar employs appeals to emotion,
hyperbole, and appeals to ethos to explore how easily
rhetoric may be used to manipulate an audience.
Your BODY is the heart of your essay!
This is where you use detailed examples to support your THESIS assertion or analyze the main idea presented in your thesis. If you listed several points or devices in your thesis, you will tackle ONE point or device PER BODY PARAGRAPH. In an analysis essay, an example will consist of a rhetorical device used by an author.
As you discuss each example you provide, consider:
WHAT the example(s) is: explain it clearly.
WHY the example supports or explains your thesis statement: this connection MUST BE MADE.
HOW the example relates to the rest of your essay.
If you want clear, well-organized body paragraphs, this is a good basic way to order your thoughts. As we explore different types of AP category essays, I will discuss variations on this basic theme.
1. TOPIC SENTENCE. Your topic sentence tells the reader the TOPIC of your paragraph or the TYPE OF EXAMPLE you will address in your paragraph.
2. EXAMPLES. A typical body paragraph of most academic essays will contain 1-3 examples, depending on how long and complicated each example is. Try to lead in smoothly to each example; avoid awkward or choppy sentence structure.
3. ANALYZE EACH EXAMPLE YOU PRESENT. This is the most important part of your discussion! Look at the example you've chosen and ask yourself: What is the PURPOSE of this example? What is the VALUE of this example?
4. FINALLY, TIE YOUR DISCUSSION BACK TO THE THEME. At the end of each body paragraph, try to tie it back to the specific language of your thesis and show how the example helps to PROVE YOUR THESIS or EXPRESS
THE THEME. OR MESSAGE of your essay.
This may only take one sentence.
→ Paragraph transition simply means what occurs when one paragraph ends and another begins.
→ Ask yourself: how does one point relate to the NEXT point? How do the pieces of my essay fit together? Why am I telling the story in this order? Transitional words and phrases relate sentences to preceding sentences or paragraphs. They help us demonstrate the RELATIONSHIPS between EXAMPLES or POINTS. They act as links in a chain, helping us to follow the train of the writer's thoughts.
→ Good transitional words and phrases include: Accordingly, finally, furthermore, however, for example, as a result, for instance, meanwhile, now, similarly, therefore, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, yet, but, however, etc. You do not have to use these specific words, but please think about how paragraphs CONNECT!
The last paragraph of any academic essay is the conclusion.
Your conclusion should emphasize the "big idea" without merely rehashing your introduction. A conclusion makes a final statement about the main topic you are exploring. A good conclusion is typically 3-5 sentences.
Conclusions can be difficult to write! At this point in our essay, we are often tired, impatient, and feel that we've run out of things to say. How can we avoid sounding repetitive and trite?
Make sure that you are not just repeating the thesis verbatim.
Do not just emphasize the exact same idea over and over in each sentence of your conclusion...even if it is a good idea!
A conclusion is not a summary; show how the points you've made fit together or support your main assertion.
• In your conclusion, attempt to provide more than just summary; try to make a point beyond the obvious. Avoid vague filler compliments such as "Ralph Ellison's beautiful writing will last for many more years." In other words, try to address the piece's greater importance in your conclusion. This can be a good time to address the THEME of the piece and show how the devices, elements, or characters you've discussed fit together.
Organizing your essay is not merely something you learn to do in order to get a good grade or pass a test; it will help you express your thoughts and perspectives in a clear and persuasive way! Good analysis and argumentation skills will help you in many areas of your life.
Your ideas are valuable, and you owe it to yourself to communicate them to others in the most effective way possible!
If you feel that essay-writing is a personal challenge, don't worry. We'll work on this throughout our course and explore many variations on this basic theme (i.e. we'll explore analysis, argument, and more!)
Aspects of a Strong Thesis
What are our Essay Goals in this course?
Over the course of our class, we will encounter multiple categories of essays.
1. Rhetorical Analysis: Essays which identify rhetorical devices a writer has used in his or her piece and analyze the EFFECT of each device, ultimately discussing whether or not a writer's TOOLS effectively express their THEME or message. This is the essay category we will write this week!
2. Argumentative: Essays which strive to persuade your reader to agree with your perspective on a topic.
3. Free Response AP Literature: Essays which explore how a specific literary element in a work of your choice helps to express theme.
4. Poetry: Essays which explore how specific poetic devices or structures help to express the poet's tone or theme.
The great news is that ALL FOUR of these essay categories will require the same basic essay structure; that is what we will explore today. Once we practice basic essay structure, we can begin to explore each *specific* essay
category in more depth.
In "Living with Music," Ellison uses hyperbole to exaggerate how his childhood musical efforts annoyed the neighbors and how his current upstairs neighbor distracts him. He declares that the voice of the singer living above him began "bouncing down the walls and ricocheting off the building in the rear," impossible to ignore "from morning to night...regardless of the condition of her voice, the weather or my screaming nerves." By exaggerating the constancy and reach of the singer's efforts, Ellison emphasizes that he found the sound unavoidable. However, the singer's voice forces him to remember his own musical efforts as a child. When Ellison was just a "skinny kid" trying to master the trumpet, he "caused whole blocks of people to suffer...I terrorized a good part of an entire city section." By using exaggerated words such as "suffer" and "terrorized" to describe any annoyance he caused, he implies that he would be hypocritical not to empathize with his current neighbor. This figurative language helps him to draw parallels between himself and his
neighbor, tying together two different artists and
implying that they are united in their struggle.
Perfecting a craft can be a struggle - and annoy both the artist themselves and those around them in the process. Ralph Ellison's "Living with Music" explores the strong emotions and vivid experiences that can accompany creativity. However, despite the frustration that improving a skill can cause, creative efforts can cause empathy between people. In his memoir piece, Ellison uses hyperbole and simile to express an unlikely connection between two very different artists.
Figurative language exaggerates and compares in order to help us enter the emotions and experiences of another person. Ellison uses these tools expertly to help the reader recognize his annoyance, humor, and empathy. He is very aware of his own bias and tries to make connections between himself and others. He ultimately asks himself whether it might be hypocritical for him, "an aspiring artist," to "complain against the hard work and devotion to craft of another aspiring artist?"