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Fungi

Fly Agaric & Stinkhorn
by

Maya Bassett`

on 1 March 2013

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Transcript of Fungi

Fungi: The Fly Agaric & Stinkhorn By: Maya Bassett The Fly Agaric Stinkhorn Scientific Classification Description Varieties Toxicity Distribution Scientific Classification Habitat Varieties The Fly Agaric Genus: Amanita
Species: Amanita muscaria
Family: Amanitaceae

Amanita includes species that have very parthy universal veil remnants, including a volva that is reduced to a series of concentric rings and the veil remnants on the cap being a series of patches or warts. Most species in this group have a bulbous base. Flavivolvata - grows from southern Alaska down through Rocky Mountains, through Central America, all the way down to Andean Colombia.

Alba

Formosa

Guessowii - commonly found in northeastern North America, from Newfoundland and Quebec all the way down to the state of Tennessee.

Persicina - can be seen growing in Southeastern Coastal areas of the United States

Regalis - from Scandinavia and Alaska Native to coniferous and deciduous woodlands throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including higher elevations in regions such as the Hindu Kush, the Mediterranean, and Central America. The fly agaric forms symbiotic relationships with a large variety of trees, including pine, spruce, fir, birch, and cedar.
It is commonly found under these trees and is the fungal equivalent of a weed in New Zealand, Tasmania, and Victoria.
It is also invading a rainforest in Australia, where it may be displacing the native species. The common stinkhorn can be found throughout much of Europe and North America, and has also been found in China, Taiwan, India, Costa Rica, Iceland, Tanzania, and southeast Australia. In America, it is most commonly found west of the Mississippi River.
The fungus is associated with rotting wood so it tends to be found in deciduous woods where it fruits from summer to late autumn, thought it may also be found in coniferous woods or even grassy areas such as parks and gardens. Although the fly agaric is poisonous, deaths from its consumption are rare and it is even eaten in parts of Europe, Asia, and North America after parboiling, in which the mushroom is boiled and removed before fully cooked. Family: Phallaceae
Genus: Phallus
Species: Phallus impudicus

Stinkhorns are known for their foul-smelling sticky spore masses, called gleba. The characteristic fruiting body structure - a single, unbranched receptaculum with an externally attached gleba on the upper part distinguish the Phallaceae from other families in the Phalalles. - Spores are produced internally
- The fertile portion of the fruiting body is often borne on the end of a wide fleshy or spongy stalk
- They may be brightly colored, sometimes with a lattice- or veil-like membrane enclosing and protecting the spores.
- Gleba: the spore containing liquidy substance that has a strong foul smell, is formed on the exterior face of the cap or the upper part of the receptacle
- The basidia are small with 4 to 8 sterigmata
- Spores are a pale brown color and condensed at base Aseroe rubra - An Australian and Pacific species which has spread to Europe and North America.

Clathrus columnatus - The "column stinkhorn," has widespread distribution and is found in Africa, Australia, Asia, and the Americas.

Laternea pusilla - Grow in Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from June through November.

Clathrus ruber - The "latticed stinkhorn," "basket stinkhorn," or "red cage." Primarily found in Europe, but has spread to northern Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. Growth &Description - Fully grown fly agarics have a bright red cap around 3-8 inches in diameter
- After emerging from the ground, the cap is covered with a bunch of small white to yellow pyramid-shaped warts (remnants of the universal veil)
- Free gills are white, 2-8 inches high and has brittle, fibrous texture
- At the base is a bulb that bears universal veil remnants in the form of two-four distinct rings
- Between the universal veil remnants and gills are the remnants of the partial veil in the form of a white ring Habitat Stinkhorn Spore Dispersal Stinkhorns do not spread their spores through the air.
Stinkhorns produce a sticky spore mass on their tip which has a sharp, foul-odor to attract flies and other insects.
The mature fruiting bodies can be smelled from a distance in the woods and people tend to find the smell extremely repulsive.
The flies land in the gleba (sticky spore mass) and collect the mass on their legs, then carrying it to other locations. Uses At the egg stage, the pieces of the inner layer can be cut out and eaten raw.
The fungus is enjoyed and eaten in France and parts of Germany, where it may be sold fresh or pickled and used in sausages. Similar species are consumed in China.

A study has suggested that extracts from the stinkhorn can reduce the risk of blood clots in cancer patients by reducing the incidence of platelet masses, and also may have potential as a supportive preventative nutrition.
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