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Unit 1

Chemistry, Macromolecules, and Nutrition
by

Meg Brennan

on 15 April 2011

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Transcript of Unit 1

CHEMSITRY MACROMOLECULES NUTRITION Nucleic Acid Carbohydrates Lipids Complex molecules that are composed of one or more polypeptide chains.
The polypeptide chains are made up of amino acids which are then folded into 3-D shapes.
These 3-D shapes determine the function of the protein. Biological molecules essential for life.
Include DNA and RNA 1) 2) 3) 4) An organic compound, that consists of only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
The main energy source for plants and animals (are also used for storage).
Each carbohydrate is grouped into one of four main catagories; monosaccharides; dissachrides; oligosacchrides; and polysaccharides. Natural occuring molecules. ie) fats, waxes, sterols, and vitamins 4 MAIN TYPES 2 4 3 1 Protein Protein Nucleic Acid Carbohydrates Lipids Large molecules sometimes composed of a large number of repeating subunits l l l l l l l Proteins are structured according to protein levels:
1) Primary

2) Secondary


3) Tertiary



4) Quatenary -amino acids in the protein are held together by peptide bons -folding occurs in an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet formation -amino acids are held together by hydrogen bonding -form when polypeptides of secondary structure are folded -amino acids are held together by sulphide covalen bonds, hydrogen and ionic bonds or hydrophobic interactions -2 or more polypeptide sub-units combine to form a protein Proteins are determined by their structure, changes in their shape can cause them to function completely different. (The most common factors that affect the shape are temperature and pH.) Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. They contain an amino group, varibale chain and a carboxyl group. (As shown in the diagram to the right.) Carbohydrates are the main energy
source for plants and animals. 4 main types: 1) Monosacchrides (single sugar) 2) Disacchrides (two sugar molecules) - all share the same molecular formula (C6H12O6)
- Ex. glucose, galactose - two monosacchrides bind resulting int the removal of an H20 molecule
- Ex. sucrose (fructose + glucose), lactose (galactose + glucose) 3) Oligosacchrides (more than one, less than many sugar molecules) 4) Polysaccharides (hundreds to thousands of sugar molecules) - polymers of glucose
- Ex. glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin These organic compounds are formed and destroyed by two types of reactions, Dehydration Synthesis (condensation reaction) and Hydrolysis. Dehration Synthesis is the formation of a saccharide. Two molecules join to form one with the removal of water. Hydrolysis is the break down of a saccharide to form two molecules, with the addition of water. A + B = AB +H2O AB + H2O = A + B Nucleic Acids are chemical compounds made up of smaller units called nucleotides. They are used to store hereditary information which determines structural and functional characteristics. Examples of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) contains instructions for building the organism.
It is a double helix with two strands running perpendicular to each other. The backbone of the ladder is made up of phosphodiester bonds between the phosphate groups. The rungs of the ladder are nitrogenous bases that form hydrogen bonds with one another. RNA (ribonucleic acid) reads information from the cell and transports it to the protein-building part of the cell.
It is single stranded and contains a ribose sugar. DNA's sugar is deoxyribose where as RNA is ribose. In nucleic acids there are 5 types of organic bases: 1) adenine (A)
2) guanine (G)
3) cytosine (C)
4) thymine (T)
5) uracil (U) DNA contains A,G,C and T where RNA contains A, G, C and U (instead of T). > Lipids are hydrophobic molecules composed of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. Lipids are used by organisms to store energy, build membranes and to build other cell parts. There are four main lipid groups:
- fats
- steroids
- phospholipids
- waxes Fats are stored as trigylcerides (3 fatty acid tails/ glycerol) which are excess carbs that have been converted to fat for storage purposes. Fats Steroids Phospholipids Waxes Saturated - no double bonds between carbon
- solid at room temperature
- found in animals
- unhealthy Unsaturated
- double bonded between
carbons
- liquid at room
temperature
- found in plants
- healthy Main types of fats: Waxes are long-chain fatty acids that link to alcohols or carbon rings. Steroids can act as hormones (estradiol and testosterone), an anti-inflammatory (dexamethasone), and the dietary fat, cholesterol.

Steroid are organic compounds that all share the same 4 ringed structure. Phospholipids are composed of a phosphate group (located in the head), a glycerol (located at the top of the tail) and two fatty acid tails. Phospholipids are a major component of the cell membrane as they make up the lipid bilayers. Steroids Waxes Phospholipids Fats Naming organic
molecules Atoms Organic Chemsitry Bonds/ Forces Atoms A basic unit of matter, with protons and neutrons in the nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Protons and electrons are electrically charged particles, protons are negatively charged.
Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers all called isotopes.
The atoms mass is calculated by adding the protons and neutrons. Bonds/ Forces - London Dispersion Forces (weakest attraction between the nucleus of one molecule and the electrons of a nearby molecule) Naming Organic Molecules 1) Find the longest chain
- doesn't have to be straight
- must include double/ triple bonds

2) Identify side chains
di
tri
tetra
penta

3) Number and name it
- lowest set of numbers
- must be in alphabetical order

4) All single bonds - 'ANE'
Double bonds - 'ENE'
Triple bonds - 'YNE'

1 - meth
2 - eth
3 - prop
4 - but
5 - pent
6 - hex
7 - hept
8 - oct
9 - non
10 - dec Organic Chemsitry - van der Waal's Forces (the attraction between one or with neutral molecules) - Ionic Bonds (formed when one element takes the lectron it needs from another element) - Dipole-Dipole Forces (between polar molecules) - Hydrogen Bonding (the strongest intermolecular forces) - Polar Covalent Bonding (electron sharing, shared unequally) - Non-Polar Covalent Bonding (electron pairing shared equally) - Covalent Bonding (formed by the sharing of valence electrons) The study of structure, properties, composition and reactions of carbon compounds. They are also produced by living things. Energy Drinks Energy Drinks and Alcohol Energy Input vs Energy Output Energy Input vs Energy Output To live a healthy lifestyle the energy required should equal the energy intake.
Health Canada recommends everyone to have at least 30 minutes of exercise a day along with a proper diet.
For females 14-18 they should be eating 7 servings of fruits + veggies; 6 servings of grain; 3-4 servings of dairy products; 2 servings of meat; and 1-2 tsp of lipids.
For males 14-18 they should be eating 8 servings of fruits + veggies; 7 servings of grain; 3-4 servings of dairy products; 3 servings of meat; and 1-2 tsp of lipids.
To help monitor appropriate a healthy diet one can calculate their daily caloric intake (it ranges from person to person and based on their activity level.) - Increase dehydration (which is harder and takes longer to metabolize the alcohol) - Increase toxicity of alcohol (after the caffeine is gone it increases the alcohol's effects) - Increases the hangover Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is very dangerous, it allows the body to disregard the side-effects of alcohol until the energy drink has worn off. Thus wanting to drink more. The caffeine in energy drinks stimulates the nervous system. What gives us the energy from the drinks are the carbohydrates. Energy drinks may claim they provide muscle repair, but in reality they only provide about 1 % of the protein needed in a day.
Drinking beverages with caffeine in them, all make the body 'crash'. They spike the blood sugar and then result in a steep drop (crash). Energy Drinks and Alcohol Leads to... Energy Drinks
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