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Kai Sexson

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of greek

Greece ch. 11 people Bull leaping is a form of bull fighting. There was always a man and a woman doing it together. The man would grab the bull's horns as it went to throw him into the air and do a summersault onto it's back. After that, he would do a backflip off the bull's back and be caught by the woman. many experts believe that this was a religious ceremony as well as a sport. The labyrinth was a network of passageways and rooms in which it is difficult to find one's way. also known as a maze. Parchment is thin oiled animal skin that is stretched over windows and doors. Shrines are sacred places of worship. A megaron is a sguare room with a fireplace in it's center that was used for entertainment and meetings. Tenants are people who work and live on another person's land. Civil wars are wars between opposing groups of citizens. Greece chapter 9 terms Theseus was a legendary Greek prince who supposedly ended the power of the Minoans by killing the Minotaur. Homer was a blind Greek poet who composed a long poem about the Trojan War called the Iliad. Odysseus was the Mycenaean hero of the Trojan War who thought of the Trojan Horse. Helen was the Mycenae queen who fell in love with Paris, went to him to Troy. The Mycenae king followed to get her back and started the Trojan War. Greece chapter 9 people Greece chapter 9 summary The Minoans were farmers at first, and traded their surplus of crops to other people for things they didn't have at the time. They eventually started using their skills in metalworking and carpentry to make a living out of trading. when pirates threatened them, they changed the design of their ships so they could fight or outrun them. Pretty soon, they were the most important seafaring nation in the world. The Minoans were small people and wore varieties of clothing and jewelry. They also spent their time in a variety of ways, but they loved sports. They built a huge stadium to watch sports. A popular sport was bull leaping, though that was believed to be a religious ceremony as well as a sport. at the center of each Minoan city was a palace.One of the greatest palaces was the one at Knossos. The palace was basically a labyrinth with merchant houses around it. the rulers of Crete were priest-kings who paid homage to the Minoans' many gods. the Minoans built many shrines on hilltops and in caves to the Great Goddess. they believed certain things were sacred, such as the lily and the dove. no one knows why the Minoan civilization came to an end, but legend has it that Theseus was brought to the labyrinth and killed a monster called the Minotaur, ending the power of the Minoans. Eventually a people called the Mycenaeans settled in the lowlands of Greece. The Mycenaens built fortress-palaces where the citizens hid in times of attack. although they kept large herds of cattle, the Mycenaeans relied on hunting to get more meat. Shortly after the Mycenaeans settled, they were visited by Minoan traders and started to copy some of their ways of life. Greece chapter 11 terms Oracles were people who it was believed could speak to the gods. A prophecy is a statement of what might happen in the future. Pancratium is an olympic event that combined boxing and wrestling. The Pentathlon is an olympic game made up of five events. Philosophia is the love wisdom, according to the Greeks. The Socratic is a form of questioning developed by Socrates. A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a problem. Syllogism is a form of reasoning developed by Aristotle. Herodotus was called "the Father of History" and wrote an account of the Persian Wars. Socrates was an Athenian philosopher who came up with the Socratic Method.Plato was Socrates's pupil who recorded Socrates's speeches. Aristotle was Plato's pupil who founded his own school. Greece ch. 9-12 Greece chapter 10 terms A polis is a Greek city-state. An Acropolis is a fortified hill. An Agora is an open area used as a marketplace. Aristocrats are members of the upper class. An Oligarchy is a government in which a few people rule. A constitution is a set of written laws used to govern a state. Mercenaries are men hired to be soldiers for a foreign country. Greece chapter 10 people Solon was an Athenian ruler who made a new constitution for Athens that erased all debts, freed slaves, and set a limit on how much land you could have. Cleisthenes was an Athenian noble who put into effect the world's first democratic constitution. Darius was a Persian king who tried and failed to conquer Athens. Xerxes was the son of Darius who tried to take over all of Greece, starting the Persian Wars, but was defeated. Pericles was a ruler of Athens who built the Parthenon and the Long Walls. ,mdfnjkdfsgkfgknfdbnmsdf Greece chaper 9 summary part 2 The Mycenaeans also grew olives and squeezed and sold the oil. Eventually, the Mycenaeans started to raid nearby lands, and became the chief power of the Aegean world. The Mycenaeans are famous for their attack on Troy, a major trading city in Asia Minor. We know about the Trojan War because a blind Greek poet named Homer made a poem about it. According to Homer, the Mycenaean queen, Helen, left her husband and went to Troy with Paris. Her husband attacked Troy, but after ten years of fighting he still hadn't taken the city. At that point, Odysseus proposed building a hollow wooden horse and hiding their best men inside and sailing away. When the Trojans saw them sail away, they thought they had won and pulled the horse into the city. At night, the soldiers climbed out of the horse and burned the city. After this, civil war broke out among the Mycenaeans and they were conquered by the Dorians. Afterward, the "Dark Age" happened. The Mycenaeans no longer traded with the outside world. Pretty soon, most of their culture was gone and they decided to start over as the Greeks. Greece chapter 10 summary At about 700 B.C., Greece's polis changed into a normal city-state. For Greeks, the polis gave them a sense of belonging and the therefore put it at great worth. The two greatest city-states Athens and Sparta. Athens had the strongest navy and Sparta had the strongest navy, although they were different in culture. Sparta had two kings who ruled jointly, although they had very little power. The Assembly of citizens passed the laws. Sparta spent most of it's time training it's citizens for war.Spartan boys were taken when they were seven years old and trained to be soldiers. Spartan women had more freedom then women of other city-states, and mingled freely with the men. Spartans also believed that change would weaken them, and therefore rejected all new ideas. At first, Athens was also ruled by kings, but it was later ruled by an Oligarchy. Soon, a man named Solon made a constitution that erased all debts in Athens along with other things. In 508 B.C., a man came to power named Cleisthenes. He put into effect the worlds first democratic constitution. He opened the assembly, in which all males over 20 years old participated in.The Counsel of Five Hundred, which was five hundred randomly chosen citizens, presided over the daily business of Athens. They also required every boy to be educated. In 545 B.C., the Persians took over Ionia. 20 years later, the Ionians revolted. They asked Athens and another city-state to help. Athens complied by sending over a few warships. The Ionians were defeated anyway, and the king of Persia wanted to punish the the Greeks for helping. Persians sailed to the plain of Marathon but were defeated. The Athenians built a new style of warships to prepare for if the Persians ever came back. And they did. But after the Greeks were defeated at the battle of Thermopylae, they defeated the Persian navy and sent them home. As a result of the Persian Wars, the Greeks formed the Delian League. Sparta was one of the only city-states that did not join. After a while, Athens started getting more powerful than any of the other city-states and the Delian League basically turned into the Athenian Empire. An Athenian ruler at the time was Pericles. He spent much of the Delian League's money building a temple to Athena, and a pair of walls connecting Athens to it's seaport five miles away. Much of this made other city-states hate Athens, and pretty soon a group of city-states led by Sparta declared war on Athens. After 30 years, Sparta defeated Athens, and set up a new type of government. Athens eventually revolted, but they were never as powerful as they had been. After the war, the Greeks were weakened. Sparta ruled Greece, but was eventually overthrown by Thebes. The Greeks were no longer strong enough to fight off invaders and were conquered by Philip 2 of Macedonia. Greece ch. 11 summary Greece ch. 12 terms Greece ch. 12 people A hostage is a person held by another until certain promises are carried out. A Phalanx is a Greek infantry formation. Alliances are agreements between people or countries. An orator is a public speaker. Barbaroi are people who do not follow Greek customs. Factories are buildings where goods are manufactured. Emigration is leaving one's country. This is Madness! Philip of Macedonia was a Macedonian king who conquered Greece in 338 B.C. Demosthenes was an Athenian orator who tried to warn the Greeks about Philip of Macedonia. Alexander the Great was Philip of Macedonia's son who conquered a good chunk of the known world but wasn't able to go past India. Greece ch. 12 summary By 338 B.C., a man Philip of Macedonia was in control of Greece. He tricked the Greek city-states to fight each other, then took over. When Philip died, his son Alexander took over the throne. Alexander made changes to the army, including taking scientists and philosophers into the army. Alexander took over a lot of countries and ended up with a huge empire. Alexander tried to unite the Persians, Macedonians, and Greeks and tried to adapt some of their customs. His attempts failed. 16 out of the 70 of the cities Alexander founded he called Alexandria. The most noted was in Egypt. It soon became a center of trade and learning. Alexander died when he was 33. After this, the Greeks were mainly left alone, but their cultural influence grew stronger. Soon factories were built, and the Greek manufacturers could not keep with them. Because of this, many Greeks emigrated, and most Greek city-states were under Roman control by 146 B.C. The Greeks had oracles that gave them prophecies so that they they knew what would happen in the future. They were the first ever civilization to believe that they were not controlled by their gods, but that they represented them, and it was because of this belief they made many of the great achievements that they did. The Greeks held a sort of festival they called the Olympics. The Olympics were held every four years, and held such events as chariot races, boxing, pancratium, and the pentathlon. The Greeks also invented the theater. At first, the theater was just people giving speeches, but the speeches soon turned into plays. The first types of plays were all tragedies, but eventually comedies were added. Plays were always performed at community festivals. The actors dressed to look like the people they were playing. The Greeks believed support of the theater was a public responsibility. The Greeks placed great value on intellect, and came up with the idea of philosophy. One famous philosopher was Socrates. He was an Athenian who came up with the Socratic Method. He was eventually sentenced to death for his radical ideas. Socrates left no writings but he had a pupil, Plato. Plato set up his own school of philosophy. His ideas were completely contradictory to Athens and he wrote the first ever book on political science. Plato believed in truth and taught that truth could only be found through a long, hard search. Aristotle was Plato's pupil. He, like Plato, founded his own school of philosophy. He also added to the scientific method and came up with syllogism. greek scientists were the first to discover that natural events are not caused by the gods, but by natural causes. The Greeks also made contributions in the field of medicine. Hippocrates was a prominent physician who came up with the Hippocratic Oath which modern doctors still use today. Extra information A man named Pheidippides ran from Athens to Sparta to ask for help against the Persians just before the battle of Marathon. We get the word alphabet from the first two letters of the Greek alphabet. "Alpha" and "Beta" The months in Greek calenders were named after festivals in each city. Greece had about 1500 city-states. Athenians valued olives so much that they thought it was a crime to dig up an olive tree.
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