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High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder
Transcript of High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; 2012) ASD has risen over the past ten years.
1:88 eight-year olds has been diagnosed with ASD within the United States.
This is a 78% increase since the prior study conducted in 2002
62% were thought to have average intellectual functioning which assists in the classification of HFASD.
These students have impacts on their behaviors in certain settings as well as their social skills with parents, teachers, and peers.
Williams et. al (2014) have noted that "high-risk" genes are being identified which may be the root for the cause of ASD.
Currently, they are also exploring why males are more likely to be diagnosed with ASD over females.
Clark, Radley, and Phosaly (2014) have listed the minimum components for school psychologists to assess a referral for ASD:
Structured or semi-structured interview
ASD checklist completed by individuals who interact with the student (parent, teacher, etc.)
Structured observation method
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2)
Clark, Radley, and Phosaly (2014) have also provided some interventions:
Video modeling, social scripts, self-monitoring, and peer mediation
I interviewed Mrs. S. about her son, J.M., who was diagnosed in 2007 with Asperger's Syndrome/HFASD.
8-years old at the time of diagnosis
Struggled interacting with peers at a young age
Speech development was lacking affecting him also in the classroom
Led to tantrums and shutting off during classwork and homework
Worked to improve social interactions as well as speech development
Joined sports and other activities to interact more with students.
Found a passion within theater which eventually led to his decision for his major in college
Begin by consulting school personnel and parents for background information.
Conduct multiple observations, both during structured and unstructured times
Use a structured or semi-structure interview to talk with parents and teachers.
For a rating scale, I would look at either the CARS-2 or ADAS because they both hone in on HFASD
Examine checklists that would be appropriate
Ach: WJ or WIAT
If I recieved training in the ADOS, I would look to see if it could be completed with the team
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders: Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 61, 1-19. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6103a1.htm?s_cid=ss6103a1_w
Clark, E., Radley, K. C., & Phosaly, L. (2014). Best Practices in Assessment and Intervention of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (Best Practices in School Psychology). Bethesda, MD: National Assosciatio of School Psychologists.
DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria. (2016). Retrieved March 17, 2016, from https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/diagnosis/dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria
IDEA - Building The Legacy of IDEA 2004. (n.d.). Retrieved March 17, 2016, from http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/root.regs.300.A.300%2E8.c.1
Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P., Risi, S., Gotham, K., & Bishop, S. (2012). Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2): Modules 1-4. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Williams, K., Woolfenden, S., Roberts, J., Rodger, S., Bartak, L., & Prior, M. (2014). Autism in context 1: Classification, counting and causes. Journal Of Pediatrics And Child Health, 50(5), 335-340. doi:10.1111/jpc.12451
IDEA and DSM-5 definitions of ASD
Overall skill deficits in the student's communication and social skills.
Engage in abnormal approaches to social interaction.
Students struggle with developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships with others.
They may also struggle with the use of social referencing.
Students with ASD also engaged in repetitive or restricted behaviors
Hand flapping, rocking back and forth, etc.
May have sensitivity to sensory input as well
Allows student to refer to more appropriate behavior.
Used for acquisition, performance, and fluency deficits for social skills. Also communication, daily living and play skills
Student watches secnario and gives details on how to act in the situation.
Essentially, provides a guide for students to use in social situations
Best conjoined with another intervention
Allows a peer to work with the student with HFASD.
Peer can be a model, help the student respond, or reinforce interactions with peers
High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder
Changes with Asperger's Syndrome and the DSM-5
In 2013, Asperger's Syndrome changed into HFASD.
Causes problems with those previously diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome.
Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder was also included to help with diagnosis