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The Road to Women's Rights in Canada
Transcript of The Road to Women's Rights in Canada
*The maximum penalty for stealing a cow was much higher than for kidnapping an heiress. * UFA was founded in 1909 as a government lobby group following a merger between the Alberta Farmers' Association and the Canadian Society for Equity.
* UFA began as a non-partisan organization whose aim was to be a lobby group promoting the interest of farmers in the province.
* In 1913, it successfully pressured Alberta's Liberal government to organize the Alberta Farmers' Cooperative Elevator Company, which eventually became the United Grain Growers.
* The UFA was a believer in the co-operative movement and supported women's suffrage. In 1912 women founded the parallel United Farm Women of Alberta, and in 1914, women were granted full membership rights in UFA itself.
* By 1920, UFA had become the most influential lobby group in Alberta with over 30,000 registered members. * This breakthrough paved the way towards new suffrage laws throughout the country, where similar lobbying was going on.
*Within nine years of Manitoba's suffrage legislation, the federal and most other provincial governments passed laws granting women the vote * Gives women 'absolute equality' with men in provincial, municipal, and school affairs * Permits women to vote and run for office in all Alberta-based elections - Women granted more authority in BC and Alberta - * In the same year women in Alberta become the first province to adopt a minimum wage law 1918 - Canada Elections Act - * Gives all women over the age of 21 the federal vote. * 3 years later (1921), Agnes McPhail of Ontario becomes the first women elected into the House of Commons. 1925 - Federal Divorce law Changes - * Allows women for the first time to obtain a divorce on the same grounds as men 1927 - The Person's Case - * These 5 women were known as the Famous 5 * During the time the word "Person" did not include Females. Many women had a problem with this.
* Complaints on terms of the BNA act of 1867 and the qualifications and social rights for women being eligible for the senate ; regarding being included as a "Person". - The Person's case Achievement - 1929 * The Supreme Court of Canada replied that the word "person" did not include female persons. Fortunately for Canadian women, the Famous 5 were able to appeal to an even higher court, the British Privy Council.
* The question was duly submitted to them and on October 18, 1929 they overturned the decision of the Supreme Court by deciding that the word "person" did indeed include persons of the female gender. * October 18, 1927, the Minister of Justice submits a report to the Governor General of Canada and the supreme court regarding a petition submitted by Henrietta Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney, Emily Murphy and Irene Parlby 1952 * Ontario become first province to put equal pay legislation to effect - Equal Pay Achieved in Ontario - 1957 - First Women Cabinet Minster - * Prime Minister John Diefenbaker names Ellen Fairclough Secretary of State, the first Woman cabinet minister in Canadian History 1964 - Married Women granted same rights as Husbands in Quebec - * Bill 16 passed in Quebec's National Assembly giving the rights of a married woman the same as what their husbands have 1967 - Royal Commission and the Status of Women - * Prime Minister Lester Pearson establishes a Royal Commission on the Status of Women - Abortion allowed to some extent - 1969 * Pierre Trudeau's Liberal Government decriminalizes contraception * Abortion allowed under certain circumstances 1974 - Female RCMP Training begins - * The first female RCMP recruits begin training in Regina * In the same year The Native Women's association of Canada is established 1982 - Charter of Rights and Freedoms adopted - * Section 15, The equality clause
(1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.
(2) Subsection (1) does not preclude any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of conditions of disadvantaged individuals or groups including those that are disadvantaged because of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability. 1985 - Indian Act Amended - * Giving aboriginal Women the right to retain
their Native status and to pass that status on their children, even if they marry non-native men 1909 1929 1967 1985 1993 *The Canada Act, an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom was passed at the request of the Canadian federal government to "patriate" Canada's constitution, ending the necessity for the country to request certain types of amendment to the Constitution of Canada to be made by the British parliament. 1988 - Abortion Laws struck down- * Supreme Court of Canada puts down Canada's Abortion Law, calling it unconstitutional for threatening; violation Sec. 7 of the Charter * Abortion is then unrestricted and treated like any other medical procedure 1989 - First Female Party Leader - * Audrey McLaughlin becomes the first women to ever lead a national party ( the NDP) in Canada 1993 - The First Female Prime Minister! - * Kim Campbell is chosen leader of the governing Progressive Conservative Party on June 13, 1993 * Canada's first Female Prime Minister