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Chapter 16-Civil War
Transcript of Chapter 16-Civil War
Northerners had a range of opinions on slavery, some did not believe in emancipation
1862-Lincoln worked intensely for several weeks on the Emancipation Proclamation-the order to free the Confederate-owned slaves-went into effect 1/1/1863
It was impossible for the fed. gov't to enforce the proclamation in the areas where it actually applied
Many slaves were encouraged to escape to the Union Gen. Lee launched more attacks on the North in hopes to break the North's will to fight The Civil War Lincoln sent soldiers into western Virginia where Union loyalties were strong; WV set up its own state gov't in 1863
The North had a population of 22M, the South had 5M; the North's greatest advantage was its network of roads, canals, and railroads
The Union (the North) had financial stability; the South started printing its own Confederate dollars and was in financial chaos
cotton diplomacy-the idea that Great Britain would support the Confederacy b/c it needed Southern cotton to supply the British textile industry Seven southern states seceded from the US after Lincoln's election
April 12, 1861-Fort Sumter-a federal outpost in Charleston, SC that was attacked by Confederate troops marked the start of the Civil War
The fall of Fort Sumter stunned the North; Lincoln declared the South to be in a state of rebellion
Slave states of the Upper South, NC, TN, VA, and AK, all seceded-provided soldiers and supplies to the South
Border States-slave states that did not join the Confederacy (DE, KY, MD, MO) Ch 16-The Civil War Manassas was the most important railroad junction in the Confederacy Battle of Bull Run-the first major battle of the Civil War, and a Confederate Victory. The battle is also known as the First Battle of Manassas. It shattered the North's hopes of winning the war quickly The Loss at Bull Run persuaded Lincoln of the need for a better trained army; Lincoln appointed Gen. George B. McClellan to train 100K soldiers June 26, 1862-Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee launched a series of clashes known as the Seven Days' Battles that forced the Union Army to retreat from near Richmond, VA Lincoln ordered Gen. John Pope to march to Richmond-Aug. 1862-Second Battle of Bull Run-Confederates won after 3 days of slaughter, led by Confederate Gen. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson The battle happened along Antietam Creek in MD on September 17, 1862; 12K Union casualties and over 13K casualties for the Confederacy More died at the Battle of Antietam than the American Revolution, War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War combined The North had most of the US Navy and therefore controlled the sea; The Confederacy turned to British companies for new ships The Union blockade prevented the South from selling & receiving goods; ironclads-ships heavily armored with iron Grant proved successful in the West; April 6, 1862-Battle of Shiloh-the Union army gained greater control of the Mississippi River valley Siege of Vicksburg-Grant's troops began cutting off the Louisiana city and shelling it repeatedly-the Confederates surrendered July 4, 1863 Some Cherokee Indians fought for the South in hopes that the Confederacy would give them greater freedoms Pro-Confederate forces remained in the far west throughout the war, forcing Union troops to stay stationed there Daily Life during the War As the Union needed more troops, African-Americans were ready to serve, but not all white northerners were ready to accept them
Congress allowed the army to sign up African-Americans as laborers in July 1862; the War Dept. also gave contrabands (escaped slaves) the right to join the Union Army
54th Massachusettes Infantry-Union Army unit that consisted mostly of free African-Americans. In July 1863, this regiment led a heroic charge on South Carolina's Fort Wagner
About 180K African-Americans served with the Union army; Confederates often killed their black captives or sold them into slavery
Black soldiers were paid $10 a month, white soldiers were paid $13 a month; black soldiers were usually led by white officers Daily Life during the War Lincoln had to run the war as well as deal with growing tensions in the North
Copperheads-midwesterners that sympathized with the South and opposed abolition; they believed the war was no necessary and called for its end
Lincoln saw the Copperheads as a threat to support of the war effort; he suspended the right of habeus corpus (a constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment)
March 1863-Congress approved a draft-for $300, men were allowed to buy their way out of military service-critics called the Civil War a "rich man's war and a poor man's fight"
Prisoners on both sides suffered greatly-they were packed into camps designed to hold a fraction of the number imprisoned there Battle of Gettysburg-key battle for the Union that turned the tide against the Confederates, began July 1, 1863 Gettysburg Address-11/19/1863 speech by Lincoln in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War May-June 1864-most of the fighting occurred in VA; Wilderness Campaign-series of battles designed to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, VA Gen. Sherman marched his Union troops from Atlanta to Savannah while he practiced total war-destroying civilian and economic resources The South Surrenders April 2, 1865-Lee was forced to retreat from Richmond April 9, 1865-the Union and Confederate leaders met at a home in the small town of Appomattox Courthouse-where Lee surrendered to Grant, ending the Civil War