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Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

A Concept Map by LeeAnn Schaefer
by

LeeAnn Schaefer

on 19 May 2010

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Transcript of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) “Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the
blood and bone marrow.” (Mayo, 2009) Also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia
and acute childhood leukemia. Cause The cause of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is unknown. Pathophysiology Though we do not know the cause of ALL, we do know that it occurs when an error developed in the DNA of a bone marrow cell. The bone marrow then continues to grow and divide, instead of dieing like a normal cell would causing the bone marrow production of cells becomes incorrect.
Instead of producing normal cells the bone marrow produces immature cells that develop into leukemic white blood cells. These cells are called lymphoblasts. Lymphoblasts do not function properly and build up in the bone, thus crowding the healthy cells in the bone marrow. (Mayo, 2009) Risk Factors Evironmental Influences Genetic Factors “Although the cause of childhood leukemia is not known for certain, it is probably the result of multiple interactions between hereditary or genetic predisposition and environmental influences.” (Huether, 566) Down syndrome, Bloom syndrome, Ataxia-telangiectasis, immunodeficiency disorders, and family susceptibility (having a twin or sibling with leukemia). Environmental influences are things that cause an error in the DNA and can range from cigarette smoke and exposure to benzene to cancer therapy and exposure to very high levels of radiation (such as survivors of an atomic bomb blast or nuclear reactor accident). (Mayo, 2009).
Remember:
You can still get ALL without having any of the risk factors present. Signs and Symptoms: What is happening? Anemia Bone Pain Bleeding Infection The proportion of erythroblasts to the total count is decrease because of decreased stem cell input.
Bone infiltration by leukemic cells or intramedullary infection.
Reduction in magakaryocytes which leads to thrombocytopenia.
Opportunistic organism infects due to decreased protection of the body.
Lab Tests: CBC Bone Marrow
Biopsy Blood
Smear Lumbar
Puncture Results of Tests: High white blood cell count. Decreased and possible abnormal platelets. Decreased proportion of erythroblasts to total count.
Abnormal blasts cells making up 30-100% of the bone marrow.
(ADAM, 2010)
Blast cells may be seen in blood smear. To ascertain as to whether or not the cancer cells have spread to the spinal fluid.
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia This presentation has been brought to you by: LeeAnn Schaefer Work Cited A.D.A.M. (2010). Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia-Diagnosis: Bone Marrow Biopsy.
HealthCentral.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010 from
http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/guides/000086_6.html.
A.D.A.M. (2010). Acute lymphocytic leukemia-photomicrograph. MedlinePlus.
[Photomicrograph] Retrieved on 4 April 2010 from
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1221.htm.
Huether, S. E., and McCance, K. L. (2008). Understanding Pathophysiology (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.
Mayo Clinic staff. (2010). Acute lymphocytic leukemia. MayoClinic.com. Retrieved 3
April 2010 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/DS00558.
Thank you!
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