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Natasha Notey

on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of Science

Observational vs. Experimental Science
Why would you want to study in a laboratory versus in the field like Jane Goodall?
Because, in the field like Jane Goodall, you would not have as many tools, or help. You would have to be very patient, especially if you were working with animals. You would also have to be careful with the materials you use, because you have to keep it natural. It is easier to work with a laboratory, because you have all your tools, and you have people to help you, and you have more space, and you don't have to keep things so natural. Studying in the field also is harder and takes longer.

Acquiring Energy

How do producers, consumers, and decomposers acquire energy?
Producers obtain energy through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process through which producers obtain their energy or food. Photosynthesis is the process through which plants or producers uses energy from the sunlight to create fuel. Consumers acquire energy through consuming other organisms like producers, and smaller animals. Decomposers obtain energy by breaking dead organisms into smaller peices, and returning the nutrients back to the soil. This would mean that the dead organism is rotting.

Food Chains vs. Food Webs
A food chain is a straight line of animals and plants in the order they are consumed by each other. A food web shows how plants and animals are connected, eaten, and produce more energy, on paths that will show you all the organisms, and what happens to them in that ecosystem. Food chains show a direct path of energy, but a food web shows all the ways animals are connected so they can survive. If one part of a web, or chain is removed, then, it effects everything else, and can lead to disaster.

Population Dynamics
Adaptation - behavioral and structural~
Behavioral~ Behavioral adaptation is the way animals act to survive their environment. Behavioral adaptation also helps in reproduction.
Structural~ Structural adaptation is relating to any part of the animal that helps it be able to do things that help them be able to live.
How does adaptation (behavioral and/or structural) influence survival?
It helps because they will have features that will help them to stay alive. Like a bird has a beak to help them to dig into the dirt to get worms. If they didn't have these adaptations they wouldn't be able to survive, and they would soon be extinct.

Organizing Life
How do scientists classify living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem?
Living things are are called biotic. Many things in an ecosystem are biotic. Non-living things are abiotic. Important things like water, and air are abiotic. Water an air helps the biotic things grow.
What is an Organism’s Niche?
An organism's niche is the organisms particular role, or the way it makes its living. Different organisms have different roles, or jobs.

Populations and Ecosystems
Abiotic includes things like water, stones, and air. Biotic things like animals, plants, and humans.
Experimental science is the scientific method, by taking hypothosis and studying the results of the actual test.
Oberservational science is more about manipilating, and applying laws and principals. Also, you can't do the kind of experiments you can in a labratory.
One example of an organisms niche, is that a deer has to keep the grass and plants under control. Another one is that birds help keep the bugs under control. Certain bugs ruin trees, and other important things, and these birds get rid of them.
An example of a food chain is: The sun provides food for grass. The grass is eaten by a white grub. The White grub is eaten by a mouse.
The mouse is eaten by a snake.The snake is eaten by a hawk.
An example of a food web is: Trees produce acorns, which is food for mice and insects.
Because there are many mice, weasels and snakes have food.
The insects and the acorns also attract birds, skunks, and opossums.
With the skunks, opossums, weasels and mice in that area, hawks, foxes, and owls can have food.

What factors limit the size of a population?~
One limiting factor is food. If one animal can't get enough food, then it can die out, then the next consumer can't get enough to eat because the other animals died out, and etc. Also, if the main consumer dies out, then the smaller animals will overrun the population, and because there are so many of them, their food, may run out, then they may die out too. Water is another limiting factor, because if they can't get enough water, they will die. Competition is another. Cheetahs, lions, tigers, leopards, hyenas, and wild dogs all compete for the same food sources, which can limit both sides. The consumers, and their food. Predation can cause some animal populations to go down, and some to go up. If there aren't enough predators to deer, then the deer population will expand to a great extent. Disease is another problem. If one food source catches a disease, other animals could catch it too, or the population could die out, and then there wouldn't be enough food.

An example of behavioral adaptation
is that snakes automatically know, by instinct, to go under rocks to escape the heat of the sun.

An example of structural adaptation is a polar bear has big feet which allows them to swim in the water, and being able to swim, they can hunt for food.
How do living and nonliving factors interact and influence an ecosystem?~
Biotic factors are important because that includes things like soil, plants, and animals. Soil is important, because it helps plants grow. When plants grow, herbivores and omnivores can get food to eat, and when they have food, their population will grow bigger, which means more food for the carnivores. Abiotic factors are important too, because that includes things like water, the sun, and air. Water helps plants grow, and animals need water to live. The sun helps plants grow too. We need air, because without air everything would be dead.
What considerations should be made when setting up a habitat?~
You need to take into consideration the amount of sunlight and darkness needed. Also, you need to know how much food and water they need.With the food and the water you need to know what kind you need. You need to figure out if you need an open habitat, an aquarium, or a closed in habitat. You should know if you need anymore biotic or abiotic factors. Also, you should do some careful research, and find out the exact things you need.
How can we predict an organism’s phenotype from its genotype?~ You can use punnet square. You write one parents genotype across the top, and the other across the side. You bring down or across each letter, and put it in the box's below or to the side of it. If you anlyze the dominant and recessive phenotypes. The genotypes is physical, and uses letters. Phenotypes are the observable traits about an organism, like hair, weight, and eye color.
What variations did the larkey populations have?~ The variations were leg length, fur pattern, eye color, and tail, whether it was bushy or bare.
How might the variation of an organism affect its survival?~ Variation means something changes. If the the predators die out they would become over populated. But then, since there are so many of them, their food might run down. But if their predators population grew, then their population would go down.
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