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senior project -track & field
Transcript of senior project -track & field
Based on running, walking, jumping, throwing. These events fall under two categories Sprints -This type of runners uses maximum effort for the entire race and need pure speed as well as a good starting-block technique to be successful.
-Sprints have a different starting process than longer events. When the starter announces "on your marks," sprinters must place both hands and at least one knee in contact with the ground while both feet are in contact with the starting blocks. The "set" command, is only uses in sprint and relays races. Sprinters rise to their final starting positions while their hands retain contact with the ground and their feet remain in the starting blocks as they await the starting gun. Outdoor Indoor -100 meter dash
-200 meter dash
-400 meter dash
-110 meter hurdles (men)
-100 meter hurdles (women)
-200 meter hurdles (middle school)
-300 meter hurdles (high school)
-400 meter hurdles (college /pro) -60 meter dash
-200 meter dash
-400 meter dash
-60 meter hurdles (both men and women) Relays Sprint relay teams consist of four runners. Runners hold a baton, a hollow tube generally made of metal. Each runner passes the baton to the team's next runner. Passes are performed in designated passing areas and must be made at top speed. Passing areas are 20 meters long. 4 x 100 meters
4 x 200 meters
4 x 400 meters http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm Middle distances -800 meter run (2 laps)
-1000 meter run (2.5 laps)
-1500 meter run(3.75 laps)
-2000 meter run (5 laps)
-mile run (4 laps) -Competitors do not use starting blocks.
-Runners may not touch the ground with their hands at the start.
- In the 800, starting positions are staggered to equalize the length of each lane on the curved track.
-Runners must remain in their lanes until the end of the first turn.
-Stamina is important in all middle distance events, as is strategy, as runners must conserve some energy in order to finish strong. Long Distance -Competitors do not use starting blocks.
-Stamina is the most important physical requirement.
- Like a race car with limited fuel, runners must conserve sufficient energy in order to continue running strongly toward the end of a long race Standard long- distance track event -3200 meter run (8 laps)
-5,000 meter run(12.5 laps)
-10,000 meter run(25 laps) Non- standard long-distance track events -20,000 meter run (one hour race)
-Marathon (26 mile and 385 yards) Race Walks Although it is a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times. Stride length is reduced, so to achieve competitive speeds. Rules -There are two rules that govern racewalking.
-The first dictates that the athlete's back toe cannot leave the ground until the heel of the front foot has touched. Violation of this rule is known as loss of contact.
-The second rule requires that the supporting leg must straighten from the point of contact with the ground and remain straightened until the body passes directly over it.
- These rules are judged by the human eye. Athletes regularly lose contact for a few milliseconds per stride which can be caught on film, but such a short flight phase is said to be undetectable to the human eye. Steeplechase -A 3000-meter steeplechase includes 28 hurdle jumps and seven water jumps.
-There are no jumps on the first lap.
-Each subsequent lap includes five jumps, the fourth of which is a water jump.
- The jumps are evenly distributed throughout each lap. Steeplechase races require a combination of track and field skills, including speed, endurance, strength and flexibility. Throwing Hammer Throwing Throwing requires a combination of strength and agility, with good footwork also essential in order to maintain proper form. -Hammer throwers use the same size throwing circle as shot putters, with an inside diameter of 2.135 meters.
-The “hammer” is actually a three-part device consisting of a metal head attached to a steel wire with a rigid handle that the thrower grips.
-The women’s hammer weighs four kilograms while the men’s hammer weighs 7.26 kilos.
- Each competitor generally takes six throws during the hammer event. The longest single throw wins. Discus Throw The throwing circle is slightly larger than the circle used for hammer and shot put.
- The discus circle has in inside diameter of 2.5 meters.
-Fouling is common.
- There are generally six throws per competitor in the discus event.
-The longest single throw wins. Shot Put The thrower must begin with the shot touching the neck or the chin.
He or she may not drop the shot lower than this position afterward and must put the shot with one hand only.
Shot putting requires strength and sound footwork during the approach.
Some shot putters use the “glide” technique, moving forward in a straight line from the back of the throwing circle before releasing the shot.
Others use the “spin” or “rotational” method in which they spin as they move forward, in order to generate momentum for the throw. Javelin Throw A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically used as a weapon, but today predominantly for sport. Jumping Whether they leap vertically over a bar or horizontally into a sand pit, competitive jumpers must combine speed with proper form to score big in these events High Jump Event in which competitors must jump over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without the aid of certain devices. Long Jump & Triple Jump -The sport was formerly called the “hop, step and jump” because that’s what competitors do.
-In the “hop” phase, jumpers push off with one foot. -They must land with the same foot at the start of the “step” phase, then land on the opposite foot for the jump into the landing area.
-Other than three jumps instead of one, the triple jump uses the same competition rules as the long jump. -The successful long jumper requires speed as well as the ability to stride consistently.
-The long jumper’s goal is to sprint down the runway and hit the take-off board with his/her push-off leg without adjusting his/her stride at any time.
-This permits the jumper to achieve maximum speed at the take-off point.
-The jumper’s take-off foot must not touch the ground beyond the take-off line, nor may the jumper’s foot take off from outside either end of the take-off board.
- Jumps are measured from the take-off line to the nearest break in the landing area made by any part of the jumper’s body. P
G -Successful pole vaulters combine the speed and flexibility of a high jumper with good upper body strength.
-The pole vaulter sprints down a runway and plants his pole in the takeoff box.
-The vaulter then rides the pole over the crossbar and into the landing area, without knocking the crossbar off the uprights.
-Once the vaulter is airborne, the vaulter’s hands may not move along the pole until he or she releases the pole in order to clear the crossbar. Multi- Sport Events Decathlon Heptathlon The decathlon includes 10 different events during two days of competition. The first day’s events, in order, are: 100-meter run, long jump, shot put, high jump and 400-meter run. The second’s days events are: 110-meter hurdles, discus, pole vault, javelin and 1500-meter run. There is generally at least a 30 minute break between each day’s events. Decathlon is generally a men’s event, although there are some women’s decathlon competitions. At the Olympic level, women compete in the seven-sport heptathlon. Under IAAF rules, the women’s decathlon includes the following events: 100-meter run, discus, pole vault, javelin and 400-meter run on day one; 100-meter hurdles, long jump, shot put, high jump and 1500 on day The heptathlon is the women’s alternative to the decathlon in most competitions, including the Olympics. The heptathlon includes seven different events during two days of competition. The first day’s events, in order, are: 100-meter hurdles, high jump, shot put and 200-meter run. Day two events begin with the long jump, followed by the javelin throw and 800-meter run. There is generally at least a 30 minute break between each day’s events Will Records Ever Stop Being Broken in the Sport of Track & Field? What do you think???????????????? What Science Say! Before 2008, Mathematician Reza Noubary calcuated that the ultimate time for the 100 meter dash is 9.44 seconds Brian Godsey a graduate student in mathemattics at the Vienna University of Technology in Austria wrote the likelihood of record setting performance in about 48 men and women events during this calender year. Godsey also suggested the men`s 110 meter hurdles, the hammer throw, 5,000 meter run and the 3,000 meter steeplechase race have a good chance of the records being broken. He says there is a 95% chance the women steeplechase record will be broken in 2012.
Brian Godsey also states the fact, In 2012, no women has come within 5 seconds of the 3:50.46 record for the 1500- meter run set in 1993 by Qu Yunxia of China. According to Brian less than one and one-hundredth percent possible chance to the record time decreasing and event`s top historical times are from the 1980s and 1990s. Even though physicist, statistician , mathematicians and scientists are predicting that humans will eventually reach there lowest times, our farthest and highest jumps and vaults and our farthest throws, I think records will never stop being broken because we`ll evolve and become faster stronger and better, the human abliltes are limitless. In the Theme Foundry on the gravity and levity a physicist blogged "No one will ever run faster than the speed of light, meaning the mile world record will always be slower than 5.37 microseconds. More seriously, though, it is probably safe to assume that no one will ever run as fast as Usain Bolt for an entire mile, which puts an upper limit of about 2:36 on the fastest mile time. The world record stands at 3:42 right now." 2012 broken records Once again from team USA Ashton Eaton won gold for the decathlon with 10.21 second 100-meter dash, 27ft in long jump, in shot put he threw 48ft 5' 7/8in,
6ft 10' 5/8in in high jump, 45.68 in the 400 meter dash, in the 110-meter hurdles he ran a 13.35, threw 155ft 4' 5/8in in discus, pole vaulted 17ft 4' 5/8in, threw the Javelin 218ft 7' 5/8in and in the 1500 meter run he ran it in 4.14.48 minutes Jamaican men in the 4x100 meter relay broke their own record that they set in 2011 at the world championship with a time of 37.04 seconds the in 2012 on August 11, at the summer games. They won gold with the time of 36.84 seconds with a team of Nests Carter as first leg, followed by Michael Frater then for the third leg Blake Yohan then of course as anchor Usain Bolt The 110 meter hurdles record was also broken by the United States team member Aries Merritt at the 2012 memorial Van Damme. Another extreme record broken wit the women`s 4x100 meter relay with a 27 year mark set by East Germany, broken by team USA. With a team of Tianna Madison, Allyson Felix, Bianca Knight, and Carmelita Jeter with a time of 40.82. Ground Force and sole power is what is takes to become faster according to Peter Weyand, He says " we know the champion male sprinter can hit the ground with a force thats around 2.5 times his body weight. When Usain Bolt foot lands, it applies around 900 pounds of force for a few milliseconds, and continues pushing for around 90 more. John Hutchinson, who studies how animals move at the Royal Veterinary College in London, UK reports. "From 1991 to 2007 , eight athletes chipped only 0.16 seconds off the record for the 100 meter dash, Bolt did the same in just over a year". There are three ways stated how Bolt's spped can improve by a mathematician John Barrow, from the University of Cambridge. One is Usain run with a strong tail wind, two have him become even quicker off the mark and finally running at a higher altitudes where thinner air would exert less drag on him Marcus Purdy for university of Melbourne has used computer simulations to show that calf muscles more than other muscles determined the amount of force that the runner applies to the ground How to Get Faster How we can become faster My Opinion Proving Science Wrong Supports the thought that records will never stop being broken Different records broken in 2012 Opposing Opinion David Rudish from Kenya broke his own record mark in the 800 meters at the time of 1:40.91 minutes with the former record being at the time of 1:41.11 Weyand also states, "for most runners though, speed is largely determined by how much force they can apply when their foot is on the ground. They have two simple options for running faster: hit the ground harder, or exert the same force over a longer period. In the 2012 summer Olympic game athletes broke a total of 38 world records, some by just a few milliseconds and others were shattered with mind blowing times. In 2009 athlete Usain Bolt broke his world mark for the third time in the 100 meter dash at Berlin, Germany world championships. Bolt ran it in 9.58 seconds.
Then the same Mathematician Reza Noubary that made the prediction of the ultimate time for the 100m of 9.44 second noted that now looking at Bolts time and abilities he is not very sure anymore about him calculations. Also Brian Godsey felt the same way by saying his thought about Usain Bolt performance "Can I possibly prove that it's either the most or one of th most impressive records at the moment or in history?" PRACTICUM HOURS Middle school Track Team http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm Meet the Team Warm-up shot put long jump http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm http://trackandfield.about.com/od/skillsrequired/p/sprintintro.htm