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Opera in Baroque and Classical

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Kathryn Nabors

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of Opera in Baroque and Classical

Opera in Baroque/Classical and the Requiem
Much of the Baroque Opera was composed for ceremonies and drawn from Greek mythology and ancient history. The first opera house opened in Venice in 1637.
Stage machinery was colossal and the design was, itself, an art.
Opera in this time period marked the rise of Virtuoso Singers.
Castrato singers were the leaders among them. Castato - male singer castrated before puberty to retain a high voice range they received the highest pay.
Late Baroque, opera consisted largely of Arias linked with recitatives. Recitatives are usually accompanied only by a basso continuo and then it's called seccu recitatives.
Secci Recitatives - Speech like melody that is sung by a basso continuo, during a section of high emotion and tension they might be supported by orchestra, then it's called accompanied recitatives.
Brief History of Opera in the Baroque Period
Opera was born in Italy in about 1575. It was created by a group of nobles, poets and composers, or as they were called, the Camerata. They wanted the vocal line to follow the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, known now as Recitative. This type of singing was Homophonic, the group rejected Polyphony.
Mozarts Requiem in D major
1800's French composers Hector Berlioz, and Gabriel Faure, Italian Giuseppe Verdi
The Diffrence
Angus Dei

Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem sempiternam.
We continue to still use some of the origanal ways of the opera, they have transitioned into great works on Broadway and great musical peices, people have and will continue to enjoy musical theatre for may years to come.
The First Preserved Opera
by Jacopo Peri. Composed for King Henri 4 of France and Marie de' Medici's wedding and perfored in 1600 in Florence.
Seven years later, for the court of the Gonzaga family in Mantua, Monteverdi composed

Both operas were based on the Greek myth of Orpheus' descent into Hades to bring back his beloved Eurydice.
Accompanied Recitatives - Speech like melody that is sung by a solo voice accompanied by the orchestra. Action stopped during the Aria and singer faced the audience. It expressed feelings and displays vocal virtuosity, Aria form of late Baroque was typically, A B A, called a, Da Capo Aria, after the B section the term Da Capo is written meaning from the beginning
Requiem Mass

Fore Mass
Requiem et Kyrie - Introit
Dies Irae-tuba mirum Kyrie-
Quid sum miser Gloria
Rex Tremendae Collect
Quaerens me Epistle
Lacrymosa Gradual
Offertorium Alleluia
Hostias Sequence
Sanctus- Gospel
Agnus Dei- Credo
The Kyrie
Kyrie eleison,
Lord have mercy on us,
Christe eleison.

Christ have mercy on us.
Kyrie eleison.
Lord have mercy on us
Rex Tremendae
Rex tremendae majestatis,
qui salvandos savas gratis,
salve me, fons pietatis. King of tremendous majesty,
who freely saves those worthy ones,
save me, source of mercy

Only the Requiem has this part of the service.
Kamien, R (2015) Music: An appreciation, McGraw Hill
People In This
Kathyrn Michaela Nabors
Joshua Johnson
Sara Trent
What is Opera?
Hope You Enjoyed Our Presentation! :)
Opera - Drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment, usually a large-scale composition employing vocal soloists, chorus, orchestra, costumes, and scenery.
It's a unique fusion of music, acting, poetry, dance, scenery and emotion
has spread to many countries and remains a powerful form of musical theatre.
characters and plots are revealed through song.
Flow of music carries plot forward.
Demands performrs who can simultaneosly sing and act.
The stars onstage are solo singers, secondary soloists, a chorus, and sometimes dancers.
Occaisionally there are "supers" or extras, that don't sing, they just add effects.
Scenery, lighting, and stage machinery is intricate.
The instrumentalists and the conductor are in the orchestra pit.
There can be several hundred people on the orchestra starting out.
The Libretto is written by a librettist.
Libretto- text of an opera.
Librettist- Dramatist who writes the Libretto.
Characters are overwhelmed by love, lust, and revenge and wera disguises and commit huge acts of violence.
Spoken diologue is really only used in comic opera.
A three-hour opera has less text than a three-hour play.
Librettists allow time for the composer's musical elaboration.
Characters in opera are greatly varied.
Elements of Opera
Voice categories of opera:
Coloratura Soprano- very high range; can execute rapid scales and trills.
Lyric Soprano- Rather light voice; sings roles calling for grace and charm.
Dramatic Saprano- Full, powerful voice;is capable of passionate intensity.
Lyric Tenor- Relatively light, bright voice.
Dramatic Tenor- Powerful voice; is capable of heroic expression.
Basso Buffo- Takes comic roles; can sing very rapidly.
Basso Profondo- Very low range, powerful voice; takes roles calling for great dignity.
Aria is the main attraction for many opera fans.
Aria- song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing on emotional state through its out pouring of melody.
and Aria is a complete piece with a definite beginning, high point, and an end.
Composers often lead into an Aria with a rectative.
Rectative are used for monologues and dialogues that connect melodic sections.

Soloists sing compositions for two or more singers: Duets. Trios. Quartets. Quintets. Sextets.
It's called an ensemble when there's three or more singers.
Atmosophere and comments on the action are made with the chorus
Chorus- a group of singers performing together, generally with more than one to a part.
Prompter- person who gives cues and reminds singers of their words or pitches during a performance.
Prompters are center stage, near footlights, in a cramped box hidden from the audience.
Dancing is incidental and ornamental.
Part of the setting change goes on while the soloists advance the action of the plot and work out destinies.
The orchestra has a smaller string section but has the same instruments as a full symphony.
It's the nerve center of the opera.
The order in which they are sung.
The Requiem Starts with "Requiem Aeternam Dona, els, Domino" ("Give them eternal rest, o lord."
The regular mass starts with a Kyrie.
A Requiem is slightly longer than a normal mass.

Kyrie eleison.
Christe eleison.
Kyrie eleison.

Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.
Regular Mass
Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis
peccata mundi,
dona eis requiem sempiternam.

Orchestar is in a deep shadow because of lights attached to players stands. They depict the mood, atmosphere, and comment on the stage action.
Overture- short musical composition, purely orchestral, which opens an opera and sets the overall dramatic mood, operas normally open with an overture, they are useally drawn from material heard later.
There have been much controversy over translating operas, some think that people who speak another language should be able to follow the story also, others feel like the composers worked too hard on pitch of each syllable in their own language.
Now we know that the Catholics still use the regular sequence in a normal mass, but they also still use the Requiem, but there came about a new form of the Requiem. Secular Requiem, used out of the church, one example would be Frederick Delius in 1916 dedicated to "All the young artists fallen in the war"
Opera Seria
Opera Seria- Traditional tragic opera that often featured stories about ancient Greek and Roman heros and Gods. The term Seria refers to the noble and 'serious' style of Italian opera. Built on convention of high Baroque era by devoloping and exploiting da capo aria.
As arias grew and genres developed an opera seria could have no more than thirty musical movements. Typically starts with a three movement instrumental overture, then dialogue inspersed with arias to express emotion
The recitatives is typically secco but during a movement with violent passion it's replaced with Stromentato. After an aria he characters exit the stage, encourageing the audience to clap. It then continues like this for three acts before concluding with an upbeat chorus. Opera Seria acquired definite form in the early 1720s, it was originally the opera of the court.
Opera Buffa
or also known as comic opera, it is filled with fun and frivolity. Comic characters had taken part in opera until the early 18Th century when opera Buffa became its own genre. Buffa is a more relatable to common man, where as before opera was both made for and depicted the kings and nobility. In the begining the comic operas were short one act interludes known as intermezzi that were performed in between the acts, but later in the 18Th century it turned into a full fledged opera.
While the opera Seria deals with gods and ancient heros and occasionally containes comic scenes, the buffa contains comic scenes, characters, and plot linesina contemporary setting. Opera Seria uses mostly high voices while the Buffa uses mostly lower male voices to the exclusion of the casratti. This led to the creation of the characteristic "basso buffa" a specialist in patter who was the center of most of the comic action.
Musical or Opera Today
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