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Fossil Fuels s4- Kahn, Bullard, Farrelly, Sanith
Transcript of Fossil Fuels s4- Kahn, Bullard, Farrelly, Sanith
FUELS Petroleum Formation & Location Uses Extraction & Refinement hydrocarbons Advantages & Concerns Natural Gas Formation & Location Uses Extraction & Refinement Advantages & Concerns Coal Formation & Location Uses Extraction & Refinement Advantages & Concerns 1) Generate electricity
2) Steel Production
7) Chemical Industry Formation •mainly from the remains of microscopic sea organisms
•creates sedimentary rock
•chemical and physical changes
•ongoing process Location Geographically (where in the world):
United States, Middle East, South America, Africa, Canada, and Mexico Remains of microscopic sea organisms, die
Remains settle on the ocean floor.
Remains are buried in sediment.
sediment is compacted and slowly becomes rock.
Through physical and chemical changes over millions of years, the remains of organism become petroleum and gas. Geologically (where in the earth):
permeable rock, on land, and under the ocean Oil Trap drilling wells into rocks
on land or off-shore drilling Advantages Concerns Cheap
Generates Electricity Off-shore drilling Stages: Peat Forms, Lignite Forms, Bituminous Coal Forms, Anthracite Forms. Use fractional distillation which means heating up the crude oil, let it vaporize and then condense the vapor. Refinement -Near surface or very deep in Earth's crust Air and Water Pollution
Strip mining ruins land
Greenhouse gases •Drilling a well
•Same deposits as petroleum
•Metal installed over hole
•Pump over metal When pressure and heat cause changes in the remains of animals and plants. Extraction Refinement Transportation fuel Gasoline •remove acid gases by amine or membrane treatment
•usually processed into sulfur products
•water is removed
•removal of mercury by filtering the gas through activated carbon follows
•nitrogen and natural gas liquids are taken out Use 1: Cooking and heating homes
Use 2: Washer and dryer machines
Use 3:heating and cooling Advantages Concerns Infrastructure is more set up
Formation is ongoing
Easier to extract Burning petroleum causes pollution (smog)
Producing, Transporting and using causes environmental problems
Acid rain Advantages Concerns Used for heating and generating electricity (stoves, cars)
Less air pollution Very flammable
Releases many chemicals
Drilling wells can ruin land
Strip Mining or Subsurface
Mining Coal is washed with water or chemical bath to remove some of its impurities. Permeable Rock Middle east and South America Solar Wind Water (Hydro) Geothermal Wind Heating and Electricity Electricity Production Drill well
Pump out hot water from underground reservoir
Convert water to steam to power turbines Heating Production Earth's core heats ground (water reservoirs)
Crust temperature is consistent
Pumps under houses an buildings
Pumps transfer heat and water to building Pro Con Primary use: electricity Low emission level
Water is recycled
Renewable Power plants need high temps.
Reservoirs hard to find
A lot of drilling the energy received by Earth from the sun in the form of radiation Pros Cons Wind and Wind Turbines 1) minimum pollution
2) free from nature 3)reducing gas
6low maintenance 7)reliable over time
9)reduce use of fossil fuels Pros and Cons Pros Cons Minimize Environmental Issues Electrical Energy:
•Use solar or photovoltaic cells
•Solar panels- large panels made up of many solar cells wired together
•Mounted on the roofs of houses and building Generates a lot of electricity
No air pollution
Less dependent on fossil fuel Geothermal emits less pollutants than fossil fuel
Creates less trapped heat from C02 (global warming)
Leads to less acid rain (S0x & N0x) How It Works Solar Heating:
•Used with solar collectors
•Solar collectors- dark colored boxes that have glass or plastic tops
•Most commonly used to heat water Cannot use it everywhere
No wind = No power
Wind doesn't blow often 1) not available everywhere 2)building of dams destroys nature
3) animals habitats are harmed
4)dams decrease water quality
5) dams generate erosion problems Primary Use Electricity Heat buildings How it works Primary Use Energy Wind makes up 3% of
electricity Is made indirectly by solar energy through uneven heating of air.
Wind energy can be produced anywhere in the world where the wind blows strong and consistent force. Wind energy is a lot more safe than fossil fuels and nuclear because there is no chance of fire or radiation. Also, there is no release of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and sulfur oxide. Therefore, wind has a lot less environmental concerns than nonrenewable energy resources. Energy of falling water is used to generate electrical energy Electricity Manufacturing Minimizing Environmental Concerns
- Hydroelectricity production releases less pollution in the air compared to Fossil Fuels
-Less emissions escape when creating electricity
-Reduces the amount of gases going into the atmopshere Pro Con 1)Renewable
2)Use Less coal 1) Doesn't work all the time
2) Solar panels cost a lot of money Minimize environmental concerns No fuel because the sun is the power