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Terrorism in Pakistan
Transcript of Terrorism in Pakistan
Peace and War
War is an organized and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors. It is generally characterized by:
War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of political violence or intervention
The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare
An absence of war is known as peace
Nations customarily measure the ‘costs of war’ in dollars, lost production, or the number of soldiers killed or wounded
Rarely do military establishments attempt to measure the costs of war in terms of individual human suffering
Psychiatric breakdown remains one of the most costly items of war when expressed in human terms
Soldiers subject to combat in war often suffer mental and physical injuries, including depression, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, disease, injury, and death
Anis Dawood Mohammad
Hassan Ali Khan
Types of War:
Peace is a sign of harmony characterized by the lack of violence, conflict behaviors and the freedom from fear of violence. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests:
The existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships
Prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare
The establishment of equality
Working political order that serves the true interests of all
Terrorism: Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant* targets by subnational groups, usually intended to influence an audience
The current interest in terrorism focuses on the violence perpetrated by Islamic Fundamentalists (Islamists) Terrorism has been used as a tactic for centuries but has become more pervasive since the 1960s.
Typical Terrorist Objectives Include:
1. Attract public attention to the group’s grievances
2. Encourage empathy for their unfair/unjust situation and sympathy for the cause
3. Demonstrate the inability of the state to provide security
4. Demonstrate the illegitimacy of the state’s institutions
5. Polarize the public to simplify the debates and arguments
6. Coerce the public into pressuring the state into compromise solutions
7. Force the state into repressive reactions that discredit the government
8. Force the state into repressive reactions that serve to recruit new members and supporters
9. Demonstrate the economic consequences of continued violence
10. Highlight the potential political consequences of continued conflict
11. Attract international attention and encourage intervention
12. Provoke widespread civil uprising to change the government, or form a separate state
Motivations for Terrorism:
“terrorist don’t want a lot of people dead; they want a lot of people watching.”
History of Wars in Pakistan
Terrorist Activities in Pakistan
- Suicide Bombing
- Target Killing
- Drone attack
- Bomb Blast
Effects of Terrorism
actual, tangible damage done by terrorism.
damage to the location
casualties and injuries
Research has shown that while most people exposed to traumatic events do not have lasting problems associated with their exposure, many may experience mild stress reactions, and 20% or more may develop clinically significant psychological problems.
People tend to have negative thoughts about everything that happens in their country.
Effects on a common man
Extreme measures of security
(PTSD) is a severe condition that may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, serious injury or the threat of death.
a desire to flee from the slightest noise, such as a car exhaust pipe backfiring or even a slamming door.
PTSD can change the way people behave at home and at work; hence neither the private nor public sphere is immune from the harm caused by terror attacks.
The psychological effects of terrorism are not limited to PTSD. For example, those who witness terrorist also go through:
Income spend on defense rather than developmental projects
The most direct economic effect of a terrorist attack is the damage caused to
life and property
at the site of the attack. For example, a suicide attack in a supermarket would cause direct economic damage in different ways.
Foreign aid goes into reconstruction not into new projects.
Foreign investors hesitate in investing the money because of the uncertainty and chaos caused by terrorism.
Effects on Economy
Effects on Education
In Sawat schools were made the main target.
Girls’ schools are often made the target because it is against the ideology of ‘terrorist groups’
Children often going to school or coming back from school are targeted by the terrorists. Hence parents have stopped their children from going to school.
Another unfortunate aspect of the whole episode was collection of extra charges by some elite private schools in the name of security.
Religious Madras are being used as brain washing centers for the children to grow into monsters.
Terrorism and Mass Media
What is Mass Media?
Mass media is media that is intended for a large audience.
Broadcast media: Television, radio
Print media: Newspaper, magazines
Networks of computer-mediated communication (CMC) or the Internet
Relationship between Media and Terrorism
• Terrorism and the media enjoy a symbiotic relationship.
• Terrorism by its very nature is a psychological weapon which depends upon communicating a threat to a wider society.
• Terrorists seek first and foremost chances to manipulate and exploit the media for their own purposes by sending messages of violence and thus gaining mass publicity
• Terrorism is aimed at the people watching, not at the actual victims.
• Terrorist attacks are often carefully choreographed to attract the attention of the electronic media and the international press.
• Besides the classic terrorist threats, the influence of contemporary media has initiated the so called propaganda war.
• On the other hand, informing about terrorism is for mass media a great source of public attention.
• Due to competition in open society and ever-present rivalry in who will be the first one to deliver significant news, media sometimes consciously react on terrorist propaganda.
• Cepulkauskaite conducted a study in 2000 and found out that since the information on terrorism are mostly transmitted through mass media and that the public does not have a preconception on an event it can be concluded that mass media play a crucial role in forming public opinion on terrorism and their actions.
How it affects people?
• A number of studies found that exposure to media coverage of terrorism increases fear and anxiety.
• In a survey of Israelis, Keinan, Sadeh, and Rosen (2003) found that exposure to coverage, including “horrifying details” of attacks, was associated with the development of symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder.
• Moreover, after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Schuster et al. (2001) conducted a national survey in the United States. Their respondents reported substantial increases in indicators of stress
• Increases in stress occurred throughout the country, suggesting that media coverage communicated the emotional impact of terrorism to distant audiences.
• The media creates an atmosphere of exaggerated perception of the political violence; people may think the terrorist problem is much more pervasive than it is.
• Then, as a consequence, alarm produced by terrorism, may lead to pessimistic expectations of even higher level of civil disorder
• People start believing that personal security cannot be guaranteed by the government, this perception leads to diversion of resources to private security.
• Such perceptions may corrode the links between the governed and their government and contribute to public support for drastic measures to counter terrorism.
• The problem does not lie in why the media covers terrorism, but lies in how the media covers terrorism.
• Media covers terrorist acts by writing sensation-seeking, enlarging anecdotic stories, especially on who is to blame, repeating the same images over and over again, separating physical and mental health consequences of disasters, and creating new syndromes.
• The media traumatizes the audience by exaggerating the threats.
• In Pakistan, the trend towards news watching has increased dramatically in the last five years, the proof being the increase in number of news channels being broadcasted.
• All the terrorist incidents are extensively covered by the media and most of the reporting is conducted live.
• The need to understand the impact of media covering terrorism is vital now.
• There is a need to educate people that Television viewing of terrorism related news has negative impact on the viewers.
• Usually the impact is not identified therefore no steps are taken to counter them.
The most devastating effect of terrorism
Terrorism tragets entire nation (psychologically)
Terrorism instills anger, sadness and fear into people
Terrorism also creates a panic in the country and weakens the confidence of general public in the government and the leaders of the country.
No. of blasts No. of deaths
KPK 1043 2957
FATA 929 1785
Punjab 161 1322
Baluchistan 1357 975
Sindh 164 542
Total 3654 7581