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Indonesia

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Monica Leung

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of Indonesia

International:
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora = agreement between governments to ensure that international trade of wild animals and plants doesn't threaten their survival.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) promotes law enforcement and anti-corruption measures in areas affected by rampant illegal logging.

National:
Indonesian Wildlife Protection Law = trade of protected wildlife is illegal; liable to max of five years in prison and a fine of 100 million Indonesia Rupiah
Indonesia's Wildlife Crimes Unit raises awareness about the dangers of wildlife crime and promotes strict controls regarding crimes
Indonesia
Extinct/Endangered Species
1. Sumatran Orangutan (endangered)
Loss of habitat, hunted by poachers
Infant orangutans sold in the illegal pet trade
2. Java Rhinoceros (endangered)
Loss of habitat, hunted for horns and skin
Horns prized commodity in traditional Asian medicine
3. Bali Tiger (extinct)
Loss of habitat, initial small population, hunted for skin, meat, and sport
High demand for expensive tiger products
Green Careers
Labor inspectors in forestry
Energy auditors
Organic and energy saving farmers
Wind energy engineers
Recycling plant operator
Waste management
Bicycle repairist
Green construction worker
Energy and carbon capture monitors
Bus builders and drivers
Introduced Species
1. Acacia trees in East Java have been replacing the original savanna and threatening the indigenous Banteng Java buffalo. Control: gall wasps, basal bark application, burning
2. Merremia weeds grow so thickly at the Bukit Barisan National Park that they impede the natural movement of local wildlife (tigers, elephants, rhinos). Control: integrated pest management, cattle grazing
By: Amelia Chen, Jessica Cheung, Monica Leung
Protected Land
17.5% is protected by the IUCN Protected Areas and Marine Protected Areas, with 470 different areas being protected.
31.1% of species are either endangered or close to becoming endangered
Poaching is the #1 reason for the continuing endangerment of animals
Wildlife rangers and laws protect the animals and the lands that the endangered ones live in
Laws are not heavily enforced due to lack of funding
National and International Legislation
Terrestrial Ecosystem Threats
Deforestation caused by industrial demand for lumber, oil, pulp, rubber, and minerals threatens wildlife
Overgrazing and soil depletion harms grasslands, savannas, and ecosystems due to high demand in tropically grown foods (mostly rice)
Acid rain caused by pollution from factories
Natural resource depletion caused by high demand
Forrest fires due to dry spells and illegal land clearing
Forest Management and Sustainability
Managed timber concessions
Reduced-impact logging guidelines
Southeast Asia Sustainable Forest Management Research Network studies a series of disturbed natural forest areas. The resulting research will provide guidance to forest departments in developing production systems.
Biodiversity Conservation Corridors Initiative
Rangeland Management and Sustainability
Application of innovative approaches to land use planning, land ‘ownership’ and sustainable natural resources management at the community level
Technical interventions to accelerate the regeneration of grasses and improve the production of bio-mass per hectare.
National Parks and Nature Reserves
Parks and reserves are protected by Government Regulations on Conservation and Protected Area and the Special Directive on the Management of National Parks
Over 50 national parks
Each park has different rules, but generally allow traditional uses of hunting (fishing rod and net, bow and arrow, or blowpipe and spear) on non endangered species by natives who depend on the forests
Wetland Management and Sustainability
Global Hunger Index - 10.1 (Serious)
Population living below $1 a day - %18.1
Population living below minimum level of dietary energy consumption - %8.1
Calorie supply per capita - 2646
Population malnourished - %13.0
Terrestrial Biodiversity
Aquatic Ecosystem Threats
Ocean temperatures cause reef bleaching and difficult adaptations from species
Overfishing caused by demand in the food market
Pollution runoff and toxins due to industrial factories
Pollution from beaches and tourists
Aquaculture due to high demand for fish and low populations in wild
Illegal fishing of endangered species due to demand for luxuries (food, coral, pets)
Marine Ecosystem Management and Sustainability
Law of the Sea allows freedom to trade non endangered marine life in international waters
Government run programs to conserve waters and marine spacies
Marine Parks in Laut Banda,Bunaken , and Taluk Cendrawa to protect endangered species
Illegal fishing of endangered species (giant clam, the hawksbill turtle, the green turtle, and dugongs
Freshwater Ecosystem Management and Sustainability
Fisheries created to prevent capturing of wild fish (aquaculture)
CPUE protection of rivers and lakes that contain endangered species
Laws to prevent fishing of endangered freshwater fish
Payment for Environmental Services (PES) developed an integrated sustainable watershed management for a better system
Influence of AIDS
AIDS Prevalence Rate: 0.4%
27,000 deaths due to AIDS
610,000 people live with HIV
590,000 adults ages 15-49 live with HIV
230,000 women ages 15-49 live with HIV
HIV/AIDS lowers the population of caregivers and workers
Biological Hazards
Chemical Hazards
Government laws are created to contain the 300 chemical hazardous materials that are allowed in the country
Regulations and fines are pressed on factories
The government should create more strict laws and should limit the number of chemical hazardous materials allowed to be used
They should have the same standards for chemicals as developed countries
Chemical Hazard Evaluation
Hazardous and toxic materials from factory runoff and pollutions add to cancerous factors and health issues with the lungs
Rising levels of acid rain caused by the high PH levels in the air from factories kills or harms thousands a year by direct exposure or indirect exposure from foods
Approximately 80,000+ deaths per year
http://seaworld.org/en/Animal-Info/Animal-InfoBooks/Orangutan/Physical-Characteristics
http://www.orangutans-sos.org/orangutans/crisis
http://www.tigerhomes.org/animal/curriculums/bali-tiger-pc.cfm
http://ran.org/indonesia%E2%80%99s-rainforests-biodiversity-and-endangered-species
http://www.uwec.edu/jolhm/eh3/group10/Tiger.htm
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/rhinoceros/asian_rhinos/javan_rhinoceros/
http://www.ilo.org/jakarta/whatwedo/projects/WCMS_149963/lang--en/index.htm
http://www.fes-asia.org/media/publication/2012_GreenJobsInIndonesia_FES-EoT_Study_Gunawan_Fraser.pdf
http://www.issg.org/database/species/search.asp?st=sss&sn=&rn=indonesia&hci=-1&ei=-1&lang=EN
http://blog.cifor.org/7734/invasive-alien-species-could-threaten-indonesias-ecosystems#.UrO5XScpe9V
http://blogs.ntu.edu.sg/hss/hp331-valerie/why-poach/4-law-enforcers/
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/tigers/about_tigers/sumatran_tiger/threats/poaching/
http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/deforestation-poaching-and-the-wildlife-trade-in-indonesia/
http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/what.php
http://www.profauna.net/en/facts-about-indonesian-animals#.UrPZWScpe9V
http://www.wcs.org/conservation-challenges/natural-resource-use/hunting-and-wildlife-trade/indonesias-wildlife-crimes-unit.aspx
http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/indonesia/
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/06/24/bmkg-warns-spike-acid-rain-levels-indonesia.html
http://indosurflife.com/2012/12/acid-rain-indicated-to-happen-in-indonesia/
http://www.wri.org/our-work/top-outcome/reducing-forest-fire-threats-indonesia
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/borneo_forests/borneo_deforestation/
http://epress.anu.edu.au/apem/borneo/mobile_devices/ch08s03.html
http://indahnesia.com/indonesia/PAR/
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/new_guinea_forests/conservation_new_guinea_forests/sites_new_guinea_forests/lorentz_national_park_indonesia/
http://pompei-hotels.com/travel-and-architecture-design/Komodo-National-Park-Nyuss-Tour.jpg
http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al531E/al531e.pdf
http://www.asiaforestnetwork.org/pub/pub10.htm
http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art40/
Limitations and laws against deforestation protect ecosystems of species
Illegal activities of poaching are becoming more strict and punished more severely
Indonesia is a biodiversity hotspot due to its tropical climate leading to a large diversity in plant and animal species
Set limitations of fishing and hunting of animals to prevent endangerment
Wildlife protection organizations (World Wildlife Fund, Indonesian Center for Biodiversity and Biotechnology
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/nbsap/nbsapcbw-seasi-01/other/nbsapcbw-seasi-01-id-en.pdf
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/nbsap/nbsapcbw-seasi-01/other/nbsapcbw-seasi-01-id-en.pdf
http://www.wcs.org/press/press-releases/indonesian-fishing-balance.aspx
http://ran.org/indonesia%E2%80%99s-rainforests-biodiversity-and-endangered-species
http://icbb.or.id/
http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/oceans/coral-triangle/indonesia.aspx
http://www.apex-environmental.com/IOCP.html
http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue_planet/problems/
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/153816/
http://www.lme.noaa.gov/LMEWeb/Downloads/book_sustainabledevelopment.pdf
http://www.loicz.org/projects/documents/010049/index_0010049.html.en
http://pemsea.org/pdf-documents/profile-CME-indonesia.pdf
http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/indonesa/Freshwaterindonesia04f.pdf
http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/habitats/riverslakes/
http://www.marecentre.nl/mast/documents/communitybasedfisheriesmanagementinstitutioninIndonesia.pdf
http://www.wwf.or.id/en/about_wwf/whatwedo/freshwater/about_freshwater/
http://apps.who.int/nutrition/landscape/report.aspx?iso=idn
http://www.swulinski.com/Images/Asia/Indonesia/Bali/Jatiluwih/Jatiluwih02-big.jpg
http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/indonesia
Food Security
System of Aquatic Reserves
Aquatic Biodiversity
Agriculture
Soil
Environmental Problems
Crop Protection
Works Cited
Industrial - exports: palm oil, rubber, cocoa, coffee, tea, sugar, rice, tropical spices
-Hill farming is the most common system
-Bench terraces or raised bed terraces edged with grass or mulch lowered the erosion rate of the soil
Deforestation rates still high but organizations such as the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil work to implement more sustainable farming practices
Many wetlands are protected by the national parts and nature reserves due to endangered species
Programs to purify water in and prevent further pollution through the Wetland's International Indonesian Program
Often used to grow crops for native people
http://www.cifor.org/ard/documents/results/Day5_Daniel%20Murdiyarso.pdf
http://www.wetlands.org/
http://www.wetlands.or.id/publications_maps.php
No specific reserves dedicated to aquatics
Many aquatic lands are considered a part of the nature reserves and national parks
Protected by the Government Regulations on Conservation and Protected Area and the Special Directive
Nature Conservency helps prevent overfishing
Laws against illegal fishing of endangered species
Coral Triangle Initiative (CTI) National Plan of Action and the Manado Ocean Declaration protect and aim to create more laws to protect the aquatic ecosystem from pollution and overfishing
Indonesia's aquatics is a biodiversity hotspot due to the tropical environment of warm water, plentiful coral reefs, etc
http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/aquatic-biodiversity-indonesia
http://spice.zmt-bremen.com/bbcms/seite_114_1_351.html
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/1546/1/IJMS%2034(1)%2088-97.pdf

http://www.indonesia-investments.com/culture/economy/general-economic-outline/agriculture/item378
http://www.oecd.org/tad/agricultural-policies/46341215.pdf
http://www.fao.org/prods/gap/database/gap/files/1264_INDONESIA_UPLAND_FARMING.PDF
http://ccafs.cgiar.org/blog/exploring-sustainable-palm-oil-production-indonesia#.UrRa1_RDvtA
http://clic.cses.vt.edu/IUSS1.4/Anda_M-Soil-Classification-Systems-Indonesian-Experience.pdf
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/286480/Indonesia/22841/Soils
Most soil comes from the volcanic ash and lava from the volcanoes (see picture)
Volcanic soils are rich in minerals
Other soil types include margalite soils, limestone soils, and black soils
Growing demand for crops leads to more clearing of forests
Industries created to process the foods grown creates air and water pollution
More soil depletion and higher carbon dioxide levels due to rapid use of farmland
http://thaliamarten.blogspot.com/2013/05/environmental-issues-in-indonesia.html
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/18/AR2009111804162.html
http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/indonesia/environmental_problems_indonesia/
Most, if not all industrial farmers use pesticides as their main source of pest control
Ministry of Agriculture permits the use of pesticides in crops
http://www.portal.doa.gov.my/aseanpest/index.php/indonesia-pesticides-registration-rules-a-regulations.html
http://seaworld.org/en/Animal-Info/Animal-InfoBooks/Orangutan/Physical-Characteristics
http://www.orangutans-sos.org/orangutans/crisis
http://www.tigerhomes.org/animal/curriculums/bali-tiger-pc.cfm
http://ran.org/indonesia%E2%80%99s-rainforests-biodiversity-and-endangered-species
http://www.uwec.edu/jolhm/eh3/group10/Tiger.htm
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/rhinoceros/asian_rhinos/javan_rhinoceros/
http://www.ilo.org/jakarta/whatwedo/projects/WCMS_149963/lang--en/index.htm
http://www.fes-asia.org/media/publication/2012_GreenJobsInIndonesia_FES-EoT_Study_Gunawan_Fraser.pdf
http://www.issg.org/database/species/search.asp?st=sss&sn=&rn=indonesia&hci=-1&ei=-1&lang=EN
http://blog.cifor.org/7734/invasive-alien-species-could-threaten-indonesias-ecosystems#.UrO5XScpe9V
http://blogs.ntu.edu.sg/hss/hp331-valerie/why-poach/4-law-enforcers/
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/tigers/about_tigers/sumatran_tiger/threats/poaching/
http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/deforestation-poaching-and-the-wildlife-trade-in-indonesia/
http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/what.php
http://www.profauna.net/en/facts-about-indonesian-animals#.UrPZWScpe9V
http://www.wcs.org/conservation-challenges/natural-resource-use/hunting-and-wildlife-trade/indonesias-wildlife-crimes-unit.aspx
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/06/24/bmkg-warns-spike-acid-rain-levels-indonesia.html
http://indosurflife.com/2012/12/acid-rain-indicated-to-happen-in-indonesia/
http://www.wri.org/our-work/top-outcome/reducing-forest-fire-threats-indonesia
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/borneo_forests/borneo_deforestation/
http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al531E/al531e.pdf
http://www.asiaforestnetwork.org/pub/pub10.htm
http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art40/
http://epress.anu.edu.au/apem/borneo/mobile_devices/ch08s03.html
http://indahnesia.com/indonesia/PAR/
http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/new_guinea_forests/conservation_new_guinea_forests/sites_new_guinea_forests/lorentz_national_park_indonesia/
http://pompei-hotels.com/travel-and-architecture-design/Komodo-National-Park-Nyuss-Tour.jpg
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/nbsap/nbsapcbw-seasi-01/other/nbsapcbw-seasi-01-id-en.pdf
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/nbsap/nbsapcbw-seasi-01/other/nbsapcbw-seasi-01-id-en.pdf
http://www.wcs.org/press/press-releases/indonesian-fishing-balance.aspx
http://ran.org/indonesia%E2%80%99s-rainforests-biodiversity-and-endangered-species
http://icbb.or.id/
Work Cited Continued
http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/oceans/coral-triangle/indonesia.aspx
http://www.apex-environmental.com/IOCP.html
http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/blue_planet/problems/
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/153816/
http://www.lme.noaa.gov/LMEWeb/Downloads/book_sustainabledevelopment.pdf
http://www.loicz.org/projects/documents/010049/index_0010049.html.en
http://pemsea.org/pdf-documents/profile-CME-indonesia.pdf
http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/indonesa/Freshwaterindonesia04f.pdf
http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/habitats/riverslakes/
http://www.marecentre.nl/mast/documents/communitybasedfisheriesmanagementinstitutioninIndonesia.pdf
http://www.wwf.or.id/en/about_wwf/whatwedo/freshwater/about_freshwater/
http://www.cifor.org/ard/documents/results/Day5_Daniel%20Murdiyarso.pdf
http://www.wetlands.org/
http://www.wetlands.or.id/publications_maps.php
http://www.wbez.org/episode-segments/aquatic-biodiversity-indonesia
http://spice.zmt-bremen.com/bbcms/seite_114_1_351.html
http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/1546/1/IJMS%2034(1)%2088-97.pdf
http://apps.who.int/nutrition/landscape/report.aspx?iso=idn
http://www.swulinski.com/Images/Asia/Indonesia/Bali/Jatiluwih/Jatiluwih02-big.jpg
http://www.foodsecurityportal.org/indonesia
http://www.indonesia-investments.com/culture/economy/general-economic-outline/agriculture/item378
http://www.oecd.org/tad/agricultural-policies/46341215.pdf
http://clic.cses.vt.edu/IUSS1.4/Anda_M-Soil-Classification-Systems-Indonesian-Experience.pdf
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/286480/Indonesia/22841/Soils
http://thaliamarten.blogspot.com/2013/05/environmental-issues-in-indonesia.html
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/18/AR2009111804162.html
http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/indonesia/environmental_problems_indonesia/
http://www.portal.doa.gov.my/aseanpest/index.php/indonesia-pesticides-registration-rules-a-regulations.html
http://www.fao.org/prods/gap/database/gap/files/1264_INDONESIA_UPLAND_FARMING.PDF
http://www.oecd.org/ehs/pfc/48725707.pdf
Malaria from mosquitoes and lack of vaccinations due to poverty
Bacteria in lakes and streams used to grow food creates unhealthy crops for locals to eat. (e-coli) Hundreds are killed each year from diseases caught from crops and livestock
AIDS/HIV causes 27,000 deaths per year
Approx. 700,000 deaths
http://c4i.me/site/2013/01/30/biological-hazard-indonesian-archipelago-malaysia-6/
https://osha.europa.eu/en/topics/riskassessment
http://www.lawbc.com/share/chemcon2012/Conference%20Handouts/6%20December%202012/Session%2012-2.pdf
http://www.envirothon.org/current-competition/254.html
http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/publications/otherpubs/pdfs/MPA_Network_report.pdf
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