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Figurative Language continued...

Oxymoron, Allusion, Symbol, Connotation, Consonance, Euphemism, Assonance, Paradox, Pun

Kara Beal

on 4 September 2017

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Transcript of Figurative Language continued...

Figurative Language
What does this dove represent?
What does this season represent?
What does this color represent?
In this novel, it
freedom from oppression to a boy and his older friend.
The Mississippi River is the primary symbol in THE ADVENTURES OF HUCKLEBERRY FINN (1884) by Mark Twain. For Huckleberry Finn, the Mississippi River represents an escape route from life with his abusive father. For Jim, the slave whom Huck helps run away, the river is a means of traveling to the free states. Despite their original supposition that the river, as a conduit to freedom, must be inherently good and safe,

A person, object, situation, or action which stands for something else more abstract.
It symbolizes peace.
Spring symbolizes rebirth or new beginning.
Red represents danger, blood, or passion.
Here is an example of paradox which is taken from the book,
'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' written by Lewis Caroll.

"Take some more tea," the Mad Hatter said to Alice, very earnestly.
"I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."
"You mean you can't take less," said the Hatter, 'it's very easy to take more than nothing.'
"Nobody asked your opinion," said Alice.
"Who's making personal remarks now?" the Hatter asked triumphantly.
This is considered a paradox because one hand must exist for it to be drawn by another, The fact that they are both drawing each other contradicts whether or not either hand exists.
Is that we have taller buildings, but shorter tempers
Wider freeways, but narrower viewpoints
We spend more, but we have less.

We have bigger houses, but smaller families
More conveniences, but less time.
We have more degrees, but less sense
More knowledge, but less judgement
More experts, but more problems
More medicines, but less wellness.

We have multiplied our possessions, but reduced our values.
We talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often
We have learnt how to make a living, but not a life.
We have added years to life, but not life to years.
We've been all the way to the moon and back
But have trouble crossing the street to meet the new neighbour.
We have conquered outer space, but not inner space.
We've cleaned up the air, but polluted our soul.
We've split the atom, but not our prejudice.
We've higher incomes, but lower morals.
We've become long on quantity but short on quality.

These are the times of tall men, and short character;
Steep profits, and shallow relationships.
These are the times of world peace, but domestic warfare,
More leisure, but less fun; more kinds of food, but less nutrition.

These are the days of two incomes, but more divorces;
Of fancier houses, but broken homes.
It is a time when there is much in the show window, and nothing i
n the stockroom.

A time when technology can bring this letter to you,

And a time when you can choose,

Either to make a difference .... or just hit, delete.

- His Holiness the Dalai Lama
Where do the stairs begin and end?
A paradox is a statement that contradicts itself or a situation which seems to defy logic.
Don't go near the water 'til you have learned how to swim.
Escher drew many paradox's.
What came first, the chicken or the egg?
If someone says they always lie, is that then a lie or the truth?
"I must be cruel to be kind."
Shakespeare from Hamlet.
"To believe with certainty we must begin with doubting."
King Stanislaw, II
Drawing by Etcher
So foul and fair a day I have not seen!"
William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act I, Scene III
"What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young."
George Bernard Shaw
"I am a deeply superficial person."
- Andy Warhol
"Always be sincere, even when you don't mean it." -
Irene Peter
"If I could drop dead right now, I'd be the happiest man alive."
- Samuel Goldwyn
The rhetorical term oxymoron, is made up of two Greek words meaning (oxy) "sharp" and (moros) "dull," is itself oxymoronic. It is a figure of speech that combines two normally contradictory terms.
A direct or indirect reference to something
historical, literary, religious, or mythical.
“I never thought I’d move back to my hometown, but I guess deep down, I’m a Dorothy,” alluding to the “Wizard of Oz” character who learns “there’s no place like home.”
“Puns are the highest form of literature.”
― Alfred Hitchcock
One of the cleverest and most morbid poems from Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare occurs as a joke from a fatally-stabbed Mercutio, who stops joking to explain that “tomorrow … you shall find me a grave man.” Grave means serious, but here it also alludes to his imminent death.
Mayor at Hot Dog Weigh-In Jul 4, 2012 NYTimes
Mayor Michael Bloomberg was on hand yesterday for the contestant weigh-in at the annual Nathan's Famous Hot Dog Eating World Championship, but he couldn't quite choke down all the puns in his prepared remarks. The mayor was forced to recite lines like, "Let's be frank. This is one of my favorite traditions. I relish it so much," the New York Post reports. And for the most part, he managed to deliver them with good humor.

But he finally broke down when speculating whether Joey Chestnut and Sonya Thomas would win again, or if "one of their dogged pursuers will finally ketchup, cut the mustard, and be pronounced the wiener."
“911, what is your emergency?”

“Screams coming from the house next door. Need police out here quick.”

“Do you know who lives there?”

“No, they just moved in.”

“Do you have an address?”

“No, I’m wearing shorts and a halter top.
Is there a dress code for calling the cops?”

A joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words which sound alike but have different meanings.
Jumbo Shrimp
An allusion can give a deeper meaning to a story by referring to another work which has a similar theme. It can also be a way for the author to further emphasize the main point which s/he is trying to make with the story. By using allusions it may give the reader a better understanding of what the author is trying convey to the reader if s/he can draw the similarities between the two different works and show how they relate to one another.
"Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation ..." Martin Luther King Jr.'s “I Have a Dream” speech of 1963. The Gettysburg Address is not directly quoted here, it is
elicited by means of an allusion.
In Harry Potter books by J.K. Rowling there are many allusions. Sirius Black as Padfoot, Dog Star are the names having implicit references to constellations. Remus Lupin's code name as Romulus in The Deathly Hallows alludes directly to Roman mythology. The three headed dog, Fluffy is also an allusion of the Greek mythological creature, Cerberus.
'Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities'.. In this line direct allusion is being made to Scrooge, who is the famous character depicting 'pinches pennies' in Charles Dickens' classic A Christmas Carol.
Instead if saying someone has died we say 'passed away.'
Euphemism's have given people the option to sound morally and politically correct, and disguise an offending phrase or word so that no one else gets offended.
"Euphemisms are not, as many young people think, useless verbiage for that which can and should be said bluntly; they are like secret agents on a delicate mission, they must airily pass by a stinking mess with barely so much as a nod of the head. Euphemisms are unpleasant truths wearing diplomatic cologne."
(Quentin Crisp, Manners from Heaven, 1984)
Pronunciation: YOO-fuh-miz-em
From the Greek, "use of good words"
The Giver uses the term "released," which is short for Released To Elsewhere. Subverted in that nobody knows it is a euphemism save the Giver (and later his successor, the Receiver) because nobody save him has any concept of death.
"Special treatment" was one of the euphemisms used by the Nazis. This term was given to those at a concentration camp who were given treatments of beatings, medical experimentation's, or exploiting prisoners for personal amusement.
Connotation Examples

There are over 2,000 vagrants in the city.

There are over 2,000 people with no fixed address in the city.

There are over 2,000 homeless in the city.
They mean the same thing but have such different connotations.
Denotation of house:
a dwelling that serves as living quarters for one or more families.
Denotation of home:
dwelling: housing that someone is living in.
-"No matter how dreary and gray our homes are, we people of flesh and blood would rather live there than in any other country, be it ever so beautiful. There is no place like home." - L. Frank Baum, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
-“An empty house is like a stray dog or a body from which life has departed.” - Samuel Butler, The Way of All Flesh
Connotation occurs when a word suggests a different meaning beyond its basic definition. What emotion or feeling is evoked?

Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition."¨ For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles having a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions."

Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger.
The Most Dangerous Game
by Richard Connell
A man, who had been hiding in the curtains of the bed, was standing there.
"Rainsford!" screamed the general. "How in God's name did you get here?"
"Swam," said Rainsford. "I found it quicker than walking through the jungle."
The general sucked in his breath and smiled. "I congratulate you," he said. "You have won the game."
Rainsford did not smile. "I am still a
at bay," he said, in a low,
voice. "Get ready, General Zaroff."
The general made one of his deepest bows. "I see," he said. "Splendid! One of us is to
a *
for the hounds. The other will sleep in this very excellent bed. On guard, Rainsford." . . .
He had never slept in a better bed, Rainsford decided.

*repast means meal
This Nike advertisement is an example of connotation portrayed in the media. Someone viewing the ad may feel that some characteristics surrounding Nike products are strength, dignity, determination, talent, and success. One viewing the ad may feel that if they bought Nike products, they would feel a sense of strength and elitism.
This is an example of denotation in the media. This cologne ad is very straightforward because the advertisement is simply the title and picture of the cologne. Usually, cologne ads in magazines contain photos of beautiful people so that the consumer feels like they too will be beautiful if they use the cologne. This ad, in contrast, is simple and really does not exalt or glorify the cologne.
The connotation associated with the Hydroxycut ad is that all people will lost that much weight if they use the product.
Assonance is repetition of the vowel sound in the same sentence or in the meter of the poem.

The Recess Queen by Alexis O’Neill and Laura Huliska-Beith

If kids ever crossed her,
She’d push ‘em and smoosh ‘em,
Lollapaloosh, ‘em,
Hammer ‘em, slammer ‘em.
Kitz and kajammer ‘em.

“Say WHAT?” Megan growled.
“Say WHO?” Mean Jean howled.
“Say YOU! Just who do you think you’re talking to/”
Mean Jean always got her way ,
UNTIL one day . . .
Cormac McCarthy's chilling novel, Outer Dark:

"And stepping softly with her air of blooded ruin about the glade in a frail agony of grace she trailed her rags through dust and ashes, circling the dead fire, the charred billets and chalk bones, the little calcined ribcage."
Notice the long vowel sounds in that first sentence, in particular the long As. First comes a string of words with that sound, close together: "glade," "frail," "grace," and "trailed." The next sentence abandons that sound, but the sound returns with the last word of "ribcage."
The word assonance comes from Latin, an elision of ad sonare, "to sound."
Historically, it first meant "a likeness of sound,
The Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens
"It was the
best of times
, it was the
worst of times
, it was the
age of wisdom
, it was the
age of foolishness
, it was the
epoch of belief
, it was the
epoch of incredulity
, it was the
season of Light
, it was the
season of Darkness,
it was the
spring of hope
, it was the
winter of despair.

"it was the...it was the...it was the," a three note motif Dickens sounds ten times in this short extract.
"...the jobs of government are to medicate, educate, and incarcerate." New York Times December 2012
Consonance is a poetic device characterized by the repetition of the same consonant two or more times in short succession, as in "pitter patter" or in "all mammals named Sam are clammy". Alliteration is a special case of consonance where the repeated consonant sound is at the beginning of each word, as in "few flocked to the fight".
We go together like ramma lamma lamma ka dinga da dinga dong

Remembered forever as shoo-bop sha whada whadda yippidy boom da boom
Chang chang changity chang shoo bop that's the way it should be
Waooo Yeah

We're one of a kind like dip da dip da dip do whap de dobby do alliteration
Our names are signed boogedy boogedy boogedy boogedy shooby do wap shoo bop
Chang chang changity chang shoo bop we'll always be like one
"'T was later when the summer went
Than when the cricket came,
And yet we knew that gentle clock
Meant nought but going home.

''T was sooner when the cricket went
Than when the winter came,
Yet that pathetic pendulum
Keeps esoteric time." - Emily Dickinson

In the example given above, the literary device can be clearly seen in the use of the consonant 'm' repeatedly through the poem.
"Great, or good, or kind, or fair,
I will ne'er the more despair;
If she love me, this believe,
I will die ere she shall grieve;
If she slight me when I woo,
I can scorn and let her go;
For if she be not for me,
What care I for whom she be?" - Shall I Wasting in Despair by George Wither

There are many consonant sounds that are repeated throughout the poem like r, d, and l to name a few.
"Rosaleen climbed in, sliding over on the seat. I moved after her, sliding as she slid, sitting as she sat."
pg. 33
Sue Monk Kidd's "The Secret Life of Bees"
“The silent air-propelled train slid soundlessly down its lubricated flue in the earth and let him out with a great puff of warm air onto the cream-tiled escalator rising to the suburb." (Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, page 4)
What vowel(s) were repeated?
I have a need, a need for speed!
What do you see for use of assonance in this famous clip?
Latin alludere, means “to play with,” “jest,” or “refer to.”
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