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Development of Societies in Central & South America.
Transcript of Development of Societies in Central & South America.
falls of important empires, such as Inca, Olmec,
Mayan and Aztec.
In this lesson, the Mayan, Aztec and Inca empires
will also be compared and contrasted based on art, religion, economy and government. Development
Central & South Standard SSWH8 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the development of societies in
Central and South America.
a. Explain the rise and fall of the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and Inca empires.
b. Compare the culture of the Americas; include government, economy, religion, and the arts of
the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. Rise of the Aztecs They settled at Lake Texcoco near the long abandoned city of Teotihuacán.
Aztec priests chose that spot because of an omen they had seen there, an eagle on a cactus holding a snake in its mouth.
Building on the culture of the Toltec's, they made alliances with other tribes and fought wars that eventually led them to become the most powerful empire to ever exist in Mesoamerica.
By the early 16th Century, the Aztec Empire covered over 80,000 square miles. Their capital Tenochtitlan, was full of towering temples, palaces, and broad avenues. Fall of the Aztecs In the spring of 1519, the emperor Montezuma II learned that pale skinned invaders had arrived from the East in giant canoes and had damaged several villages by throwing bolts of lighting at them.
The invaders were led by a Spanish Conquistador named Hernán Cortés. By August 13, 1521, more than two years after arriving in Mexico, Cortés, his soldiers, and their Native American allies accomplished their quest and destroyed the huge Aztec empire. Watch this quick video further explaining the rise and fall of the Aztecs in great detail! Rise of the Mayans The Mayan civilization originated in southern Mexico and rose to prominence around C.E. 250.
The ancient Maya were known for their spectacular murals, architecture, and carvings.
The Maya and other Mesoamericans modeled their city-states after the structure of Teotihuacán.
Most inhabitants of a Mayan city-state lived in structures that were built around the central district.
The Mayan civilization was very advanced. They created a mathematics system and two types of accurate calendars. They took note of astronomical data and their hieroglyphic writing system was the most advanced in Mesoamerica. However, the Maya were not the first to develop calendars and a written language. Fall of the Mayans By the 9th Century, many of the Mayan cities were abandoned because of drought, overpopulation, and warfare. As the Maya lost power, people known as the Toltec shifted to an urban way of life. In the 10th Century, they established an empire in the highlands of Mexico. Within the next 50 years the Toltec replaced the Maya as a dominant civilization in Mesoamerica http://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/2ABB9027-38DE-440D-B14A-F6B433FC6D9B In this video, the span of the Maya is discussed with visual companionship. Rise of the Incas This empire emerged in 1200 CE. By 1500, Incans ruled Ecuador, Peru, half of Chile and the Andes Mountain. Clicking this link will lead you to a web page showing the full timeline of the Incas. Check it out to learn more about the fall. Fall of the Incas The Incas gained territory by attacking and conquering land. By 1438C.E. they had taken over the entire valley of Cuzco. Under Pachacuti's rule, the Incas built their capital of Cuzco and expanded the empire. The cause of the fall of the Incas had a lot to do with a new found disease called smallpox, and Christopher Columbus. http://suite101.com/article/inca-timeline--chronology-of-the-rise--fall-of-the-inca-empire-a240393 Rise of the Olmec Empire The Olmec's developed one of the earliest known civilizations in the Americas.
They settled along the Gulf of Mexico around 1200BCE.
Because agriculture was very successful. that led to growth of population. Soon after social classes formed. They built cities and ceremonial centers. Fall of the Olmec Empire The fall of the Olmec Empire is not exactly certain, but it is said that the fall was probably due to environmental change that they could not adapt to, changes that may have been caused by their own farming practices. If you visit this site, you will get a full breakdown of this empire and a bunch of extra need-to-know facts about the Olmecs.
Check it out! http://facweb.stvincent.edu/academics/religiousstu/writings/lavin1.htm If you click this link, you can find a timeline of the Olmec empire. http://www.timelinesdb.com/listevents.php?subjid=674&title=Olmec Culture Art All of the empires discussed in this lesson have a lot in common. One of those factors is art. They all had a unique way of telling a story through sculptures and paintings. Through the artwork of different varieties, you can see what may have been important to each culture. The art of these cultures took many forms, from paintings, drawings, sculptures and even food! Religion The Aztecs were also polytheistic, with over one thousand gods. Their main god was Huizilopochtlid, the sun god. The Mayans were polytheistic with over a dozen gods. The Incas worshiped a pantheon of nature gods and goddesses. The most important were: Inti (the sun god), Viracocha (the creator), Illapa (the thunder god), Pachamama (the earth goddess), Mamacocha (the sea goddess), and Mamaquilla (the moon goddess). The Olmec empire had mythical creatures as gods. For example, one of these gods is the olmec dragon, which has a big nose, firey eyebrows, eyes shaped like an L and a split tongue. Economy The Mayan economy was based on food and agriculture. Farmers played a big part of the economy because they were the ones that brought in food for the civilization. The Aztec society became very urban. The economy was based on agriculture and trade, which was provided by the citizens in land. The Incas economy was based on trade and services. This was because they had no form of currency and for taxes they used crops. The Olmec economy was centered around agricultural production, since their agriculture was so powerful and successful. Government It’s believed that the Olmec government was theocratic, which means a form of government in which God considered as the ruler. The Aztec government was more of a system of tribute where conquered cities paid respect to the empire. Cool, huh? The rulers of the Inca civilization were members of royal families. The emperors were also called the Sapa Inca. The high priest, governors, & generals were important members of the royal council and most members of the royal councils were family members Mayan cities were ruled by priests, who also led ceremonies, ran the governments and many other jobs. Activities #1 Scavenger Hunt! How many fun facts can you find on the web about the lifestyle about the Olmecs, Incas, Mayans or Aztecs? Any weird traditions? Cool ones? Funny ones? See how many you can find and ten minutes. the more facts, the better! #2 Would you like to get your creative juices flowing? Are you good with poetry or music writing? Try this! See if you can come up with a silly rap or poem about one of these empires. use the information you learned in this lesson! Get creative with it! Photo Gallery Mayan Hieroglyphics Aztec Calender Olmec ceramic sculpture Incan tapestry Mayan city-state