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Gamal Abdel Nasser

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Jessica Wong

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of Gamal Abdel Nasser

1947 Gamal Abdel Nasser Who is he? Foreign Policy Maintaining power Time for some
humour! :) - Second president of Egypt
- Former Prime Minister of Egypt
- Colonel in the Egyptian army
- Arab Socialist Union a question of Social Policy His Rise to Power Methods and Tactics - After captured by Israelies, he created the Free Officers group
- Stages military coup and overthrows king
- Used opportunity of fame by assassination
- Gained position in office
- Gained power
- Ideology was admired by citizens of Egypt Nasser's Ideology 1940 1944 Conditions of the State Previous to rise to power Conditions of the State During rise to power 1950 1952 Egypt at war Supposed to help Britain King Farouk appointed weak government Couldn't support the country beginning of instability New government formed Nearly declared war against Germany Created major instability Egypt ruled by Ahmed Mahir 1945, Mahir is assassinated suffers crushing defeat Mahir's successor is assassinated Free Officers planned a Coup d'état elected as second in command of
the Free Officers, under Naguib Nasser Free Officers growing in power & popularity British attack police station Cairo burnt to the ground Riots occur King Farouk was unable to deal with the issues Government resigned Free Officers followed through with the Coup July 26th Egypt declares war on Israel Poverty Ignorance Neglect Pride Developing country Modernizing under Nasser Social inequalities caused Nasser to turn to Socialism Laws made to limit how
much land one could have Land prices made affordable Many private coorporations modernized Nasser believed wealth should be shared Citizens under his reign lived fairly well Education was one of Nasser's key beliefs Education reforms Allowed social and economical progression Education was accessible and government funded Nasser ruled by a single party system All other political threats were put down in timely manners Nasser was pro-democratic but did not trust his political opponents He ruled Egypt but mantained a small
advisory council to help lead the country Goal Create a Greater Arab state secure dominance in the world
through a united power Nasser wanted to end colonialism Create sense of unity and pride for the Arab people Suez Canal Taking over it would send the message of independence 1956, Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal
prompting European attacks The attacks united the Arab people Beating back the Europeans gave Nasser the image of a hero A key symbol for the Egyptians Other Nasser gave women the right to vote He also encouraged women in the workplace Mass appeal
Military might
Suppression of anti-government ideas Aim Outcome - Nasser affected the balance of power
- 5 cities attacked
- Came out of the crisis even stronger
- Lost the war militarily
- Won great diplomatic victory
- Canal was returned to Egypt's possession Nasser wanted to make the US regret their actions of withdrawing their financial support Nationalization of the Suez Canal took Egypt into War against Britain, France and Israel Foreign Policy Cont'd Relationship with
the Soviet Union Arabism Israeli war
(1967) Aswan High Dam creating a dam to produce
substantial electric power Soviets agreed to provide about 1/3 of the cost 400 technicians provided to help in the construction Construction began January 1st, 1960 Completed in 1970 Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of Russia awarded Nasser the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin The Soviets also provided military aid Nasser’s relationship with the Soviet Union caused tension between the British and French 1958 Syrian military and civilian leaders requested
to merge Syria and Egypt as one Aim Create a strong Arab sense of self
during 1950's & 1960's Outcome End the legacy of Egypt’s political
subordination to Western imperialism Therefore agreed to restore its Arab-Islamic identity UAR was not a success Egyptian bureaucrats were acting dictatorially Police harshly repressed opposition groups Didn’t seek for war but allowed circumstances that eventually led to a disaster with Israel Aim Nasser tried to prevent Israel by
mobilizing on its southern front Outcome Rapid collapse in the Egyptian army Evokes how far Nasser’s foreign policy
ambitions had exceeded his capabilities Israel won the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt’s land - Create a unified Arab state that would challenge the Western world
- Believed in Arab socialism
- Believed in anti-Zionism
- Develop a world with no colonialism
- Reinvigorate Islam's importance in the secular-growing Egypt aimed for separation from Britain basing their ideology on Islam maintaining a secular state Forming a Single-party System Summarization of events - Increasing failure of parliamentary monarchy
- King & Parliament seen as only representative of wealthy people
- Growth of opposition who want to see change
- "Free Officers"
- Muslim Brotherhood
- Collapse of law and order Why did Nasser
Come to Power? - Bad government of previous leader, King Farouk I
- The need for British troops to depart
- The need for new Arab nationalism Main Points Event Details King Farouk I The Brits need to go! Arab Nationalism Facts on Main Points Corrupt; lived a luxurious life while rest of Egypt lived in poverty Common Egyptians (97%) lived poorly Caused by the overcrowding of the Nile River It was the only source of agriculture Unhappiness in Egypt from bad wealth distribution Comparable to King Louis XVI European powers in decline following WWII Colonies sought independence Farouk allowed over 80 000
British troops to occupy Egypt December 1951 British troops bulldozed over 50 Egyptian
mud bricked houses for military base January 25, 1952 50 Egyptian police officers killed,
100 more wounded by British army Failure to terminate the British
caused unhappiness in civilians Nasser promised to kick out British Arabs, including Egyptians, and Israeli clashed in 1948 Egyptians defeated, blamed on Farouk Arabs were taken back Nasser unifies Arabs (Pan-Arab) & increases nationalism Creation of the development plan in 1952 lobbying for funds Suez Canal Nationalize the Suez Canal Britain, France and Israel created the tripartite collusion United Arab Republic was established Nasser's Policies - complete evacuation of British troops from the Suez Canal
- acquire modern arms from the Soviet Union
- refusal to sign the Baghdad Pact
- support for radical movements in Africa Main Goal: - destruction of Israel
- creating and uniting a greater Arab state Nasser cooperated with India and Yugoslavia to create the Non-Aligned Movement
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