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Human Factors

Aviation Careers
by

dimitris paitsoglou

on 8 June 2013

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Transcript of Human Factors

Human Factors Fixed Base Operator Airport Flying Sector Recommendations: Aviation Improving the application of HF
Improve knowledge of HF through training and professional development programmes
Integrate HF to build knowledge, techniques and requirements IMPLICITLY into standards and culture
Promote HF programmes from the regulators and industry associations using current research and experts from Universities and Institutes
EASA and other regulators to increase enforcement of Human Factors as part of Safety Case and SMS in approval and oversight processes How could we improve the application of Human Factors in our organizations ???? The complex aviation system is highly dependent of the people
Human Factors knowledge and skills are an essential ingredient in the Aviation System
A new model of human competence is required to handle complexity and high technology-including Managers
Safety, as a prime requirement is going to be supported by improved and updated human capabilities
Human Factors in 2013 is not the same as in 1980 Aviation industries are growing massively these days such as increase in market share and hence more investment in this industry. Aviation Complex System
Modern aviation has become a complex system determined by:
High demand-High production pressure
High peak activity-multitasking
Congested airports and airspace
High performance new technology aircraft
New technologies in ATM and Airports
Heavy regulation and safety practices
Management systems-cost concern Module 2
The Meaning of Human Factors First Global Seminar on Human Factors in Civil Aviation
Montreal, March 1990
Seventy per cent of today's civil aviation accidents are caused by the human factor. With a view to reducing the number of aircraft accidents and improving the industry's safety record, the ICAO is organizing a series of seminars, the first of which will take place in Leningrad, USSR from 03 to 07 April, 1990 HF in System Design
Reduced overall cost of system development, implementation, maintenance and operation
Increased human efficiency and productivity through adequate design
Increased safety through better integration of humans and improved system reliability Human Factors in Operations
Operations means "production": the main process in any organization providing any service or delivering products
Traditionally operations is a target field for automation and robotization but nevertheless is the main battle field for Human Factors
Human error has been documented as a primary contributor to more than 70 percent of commercial airplane hull-loss accidents (BOEING) Human Factors in Management
Respositioning Human Factors as a key management skill
Identifying barriers to understanding human factors in prevention of incidents and accidents among Key Decision Makers in the aviation industry
Understanding the contribution of Human Factors in successful performance Human Factors in Safety
Every job, to some extent, is dependent on people
When accidents do happen, they are very often a result of the errors that people make
Careful consideration of HF can improve health and safety by reducing the number of accidents and also the causes of ill-health at work The aim of this course is to demonstrate the importance of Human Factors in aviation management
To understand and manage human factors as an important element of your organization
Explaining the scope, applications and methods on contemporary human factors applied to Aviation
Reposition HF to be more central in the thinking of Aviation key decision makers Why Human Factors ?? We humans, are an integral part of modern technology
No matter how we try to spread and define the blame, we humans are responsible for the vast majority of errors and accidents, and most of the mistakes
We are an inseparable part of the entire technological, social and decision making machine Two ways for Human Factors Negative: human factors as a risk
prevention of errors and unsafe behaviour
Positive: the human contribution to resilience and safe performance
understanding and managing human capabilities
motivation and promotion of safety culture
leadership Misconception about HF Human Factors "is a course" / training
Human Factors is CRM (Crew Resource Management)
Human Factors is only a regulatory requirement
Human Factors is a matter of system design
Human Factors does not apply to managers
Human Factors is concerned only with flying safety
Human Factors is applied Psychology
HF is and "add-on" and not integrated in day-to-day decision making in management New Requirements for Aviation Complexity and size has brought new regulatory requirements and professional practices to keep safety at an acceptable level and increase efficiency
Current and projected environment demand new competences on the human side
One key competence for managers and operations staff is "Human Factors" Aviation as a complex System Aviation is defined as a complex Socio Technical System
That means complex interactions between personnel and the technology at the workplace
This approach also encompass the social framework, economic, political and cultural influences
In such a system PEOPLE is a key element, in the design, planning and operations The main Human Factors problem Our main problem is HUMAN PERFORMANCE
Human Performance in aviation focuses on all job related aspects at the individual, group and organizational levels that can impact upon human capability to successfully accomplish a wide variety of tasks and job requirements including the management or related changes (EUROCONTROL)
In HF we consider the human contribution to both: reliability and resilience of complex systems Technology and Humans Technology is expanding in aviation
New technology is more complex and increase the demands and abilities from humans
A new proficiency profile is needed in aviation
Computers are new members of the team but not substituting humans
In new technology environment humans interact with information, not directly with the machines An expanding discipline In spite of downturns aviation is expanding
More people want to fly and more aircraft are on order:
2009 to 2008 - 29.000 new aircraft deliveries
The domain of Human Factors discipline is also expanding independently of Aviation
The range of applications is increasing
The boundaries of Human Factors have been extended
Academics and research in Human Factors are increasing Managing Complexity ICAO Safety Management System (SMS) have the goal of managing safety ib this complex world of Aviation
The underpinning of a SMS is the development of an adequate SAFETY CULTURE
Safety Culture is in the filed of Human Factors at the intersection of the Psychological and Sociological areas
Safety Culture is a new scenario for Human Factors intervention and improvement Why we should know more about Human Factors in Aviation Safety: most incidents and accidents are linked to Human Factors
Economy: efficiency and organization performance is directly linked to Human Factor
Regulations: aviation regulations require to address HF in different ways
Quality: quality management is based in HF development
Best practices: in socio-technical systems like aviation industry, our best business practices are human centred Safety and HF Human factors have been documented as a primary contributor to more than 80 percent of aviation
Associated with flight operators, human factors has also become a major concern in maintenance, ground operations at airports and air traffic management
Modern research in accident causation models show that accidents have also latent or deep rooted organizational factors linked to human factors in management Safety Concern Every time we have an accident, it involves some element of human performance
Some authors say Human Factors is the last frontier of aviation safety
Aviation systems, like airlines, air traffic control, airports operation are complex socio technical systems involving high human intervention in all their life cycle Efficiency Human Factors are also closely related to system efficiency, dependability and reliability
One of the most interesting lessons we learned in the aviation industry in the past 15-20 years is that ignoring human factors can also cost us a big ticket in expenses and systems inefficiency and delays
That's why every organization in the aviation system is incorporating HF lessons
In operations and management
System and procedures design Repositioning HF
HF should be better understood and more valued by Key Decision Makers in aviation organizations
Understanding what HF progress casn do to achieve a shift from position 1 now (low awareness and value of HF) to position 2. Future (improvement of human and organization performance with respect to hazard and risk management) What is the Case
Human Factors is not only to understand why accidents happen or to improve safety
Human Factors is needed to understand humans ar work, to improve quality and efficiency in organizations
Human Factors is fully related to Human Performance
Human Factors is then a key element of Management
As such, Human Factors pervades all organization in different forms Introduction
Human Factors Engineering HFE existed long before we started talking of aviation human factors
HFE was applied to the design of early airplanes , however our concern started as a result of aircraft accidents attributed to human failures or errors
Initially we started working on aviation human factors in the last 50 years to explain first and prevent later accidents
This fact created an association between Human Factors and Safety ICAO 1951 Accident Digest
"It has been claimed that the possibility of accidents in flying is inevitable by reason of the inherent conditions of flying which necessitate, besides reliance on the technical factor, considerable reliance on the skill, judgement, memory, and physical and psychological conditions of the human being"
"These qualifications can vary between human beings, and from day to day in the same human being, so that, unlike the technical factor, the human factor are extremely difficult to predict and therefore to prevent HF Practical Definition Human Factor is anything that affects human performance The development and application of knowledge concerning human characteristics, capabilities and limitations to the design and operation of aviation systems Edwards Definition
Human Factors is concerned to optimize the relationship between people and their activities, by the systematic application of human sciences, integrated within the framework of systems engineering EAAP Definition
Human Factors are defined as a multi-disciplinary effort to compile and generate knowledge about people at work and apply that knowledge to the functional relationship between people, tasks,technologies and environment in order to produce safe and efficient human performance HFE: Human Factors / Ergonomics
Ergonomics or Human Factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theoretical principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize well being and overall performance EN 9100 (Aviation Quality Standard The study of how humans behave physically and psychologically in relation to particular environments, products or services and the potential effect on safety Recognition that personnel tasks are affected by physical fitness, physiological characteristics, personality, stress,fatigue, distraction, communication and attitude in order to ensure a safe interface between the personnel and all other environmental elements such as other personnel, equipment, facilities, procedures and data Handbook of Aviation Human Factors
Human factors in aviation are involved with the study of the human's capabilities, limitations and behaviours and the integration of that knowledge into the systems we design for them with the goals of enhancing safety, performance and the general well-being of the operators of the systems Some Academic Definition
Human factors is a scientific discipline which examines human behavior and capabilities in order to find the best ways to design products, equipment and systems for maximum safe, effective, satisfying use by humans Human Factors areas of interest:
Basic human performance-perception (auditory and visual), cognition (action-selection, memory, decision making), workload, skill acquisition and knowledge engineering
Human-computer interaction-web design, multi modal interfaces, and usability testing
Aviation psychology-workload, situation awareness and interface design for air traffic management and pilots The Practice of Human Factors
Human factors practitioners come from a variety of backgrounds, though predominantly they are psychologists ( engineering, cognitive, perceptual and experimental), physiologists and sociologists
Designers (industrial, interaction and graphic) anthropologists, technical communication scholars and computer scientists also contribute to HF applications
HF experts from other areas like pilots, engineers, air traffic controllers and other industry SME normally contribute in multidisciplinary teams Human Factors Beyond Definitions
The understanding of the properties of human capability and human performance mostly related with the cognition and decision making
The application of this understanding to the design and development of systems and services
The art of ensuring successful application of human factors knowledge to a programme or a system Cognition
The way we think
The mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning and judgment
That which comes to be known , as through perception, reasoning, or intuition knowledge Applied Cognition
How we think as humans is as important as what we think
The workings of our minds have a long been mysterious, but we understand our mental processes much better today than 20 years ago Brainbows
Brain cells: the highest resolution images of the brain available today
Harvard Brain Center developed a method of multicolored neurons with a fluorescent protein Human Factors Research
Neurosciences and Applied Cognition research can aid in developing better pictures of human information processing and decision making
All high risk industries, so tied up to human performance, should use the knowledge created through research as new tools and methods that optimize human contribution
The industry alone probably will not sponsor the research needed and the necessary development
Nevertheless, industry groups, regulators and maybe the bigger stakeholders could work with the Universities and research centres HF and Safety Link
Human factors involves the study of all aspects of the way humans relate to the world around them, with the aim of improving operational performance, safety, efficiency, health and wellbeing
A pioneer writer defined once that "safety in flight is the product of human behavior as modified by aircraft characteristics, flight environment and organizational influences"
Initially we started talking and writing about "the human factors in aircraft accidents" to understand some unexplained mishaps Human Technology Associations
The simple human-machine model is of a person interacting with a machine in some kind of environment
The person and machine are both modeled as information-processing devices, each with inputs, central processing, and outputs
The complex human machine association is the Socio Technical System like the Aviation System that is a "complex system of systems" Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology attempts to understand the nature of human thought processes
Cognitive Psychologists argue that make decisions as a result of information they derive from current circumstances, their existing memory and the consequences of their own actions
Cognitive psychology assume that we develop such understanding by processing this information through a series of stages Human Factors Topics
Cognition: mental processing of information
Behaviour: people actions
Aptitudes: skills and competences
Performance: results of actions combined Elements of Human Factors
Cognition: Mental Models
Situational Awareness
Decision-Making
Behaviour: Communication
Teamwork
Adaptability
Culture Elements of Human Factors -2-
Aptitudes
Abilities
Knowledge
Skills
Attitudes
Performance
Experience
Motivation
Human Error
Stress Scope of Human Factors is broader than Psychology
HF are not related only to human mind and Psychology
It is also related to social and interpersonal skills
Team work
Communication
Task sharing
Organizational issues A conceptual Model of Human Factors SHEL
Software
Rules, Procedures
Hardware
Monitors, machines, tools
Environment
Situation
Liveware
Individual and teams Liveware
The critical focus of the model is the human element, or liveware, the most critical as well as the most flexible component in the system
The edges of this block in the original drawing are not simple and straight and so the other components of the system must be carefully matched to them Liveware-Liveware
The interface between people and other people
In this interface, we are concerned with leadership, co-operation, teamwork and personality interactions it includes programmes like Crew Resource Management (CRM) the ATC equivalent-Team Resource Management (TRM) Line Oriented Flight Training(LOFT) Liveware-Software
Software refers to all the laws, rules, regulations, orders standard operating procedures, customs and conventions and the normal way in which things are done.
Increasingly , software also refers to the computer-based programmes developed to operate the automated systems
In order to achieve a safe, effective operation between the liveware and software it is important to ensure that the software, particularly if it concerns rules and procedures is capable of being implemented. Also attention needs to be shown with phraseologies which are error prone, confusing or too complex. More intangible are difficulties in symbology and the conceptual design of systems Liveware-Environment
The liveware-environment interface refers to those interactions which may be out of the direct control of humans, namely the physical environment-temperature, weather etc. but within which aircraft operate
Much of the human factor development in this area has been concerned with designing ways in which people or equipment can be protected, developing protective systems for lights, noise and radiation
The appropriate matching of the liveware-environmental interactions involve a wide array of disciplines, from environmental studies, physiology, psychology through to physics and engineering
It is normally endorsed by Ergonomics Liveware-Hardware
This is the interface of people with equipment or machines
It is the domain of displays, workstation, the cockpit, instruments, codes and symbols
Also the domain of human input devices like controls, switches, keyboards, trackballs, tactile screen and all the extended array developed to interact the humans with the hardware in man-machine-systems Ergonomics Definition
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance
The use of Science to improve human work
The specific study of human work on order to improve it Ergonomics Contributions
Design and evaluation of:
Task
Jobs
Products
Environments
Systems
To make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people
Derived from Greek ergon (work) and nomos (Laws) to denote the science of work, ergonomics is a systems-oriented discipline which now extends across all aspects of human activity Domains of Ergonomics
Physical ergonomics
Human anatomical , anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics
Cognitive ergonomics
Mental processes, perception, memory, reasoning and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system
Mental workload , decision-making, skilled performance , human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system design
Organizational ergonomics
Optimization of sociotechnical system, including their organizational structures, policies and processes, communication, crew resource management, work design, shift design, teamwork and quality management The Differences
A number of writers think of human factors, human factors engineering and ergonomics as interchangeable however there are differences
Definitions of human factors include a broader range of classification categories and domains of inclusion
Definitions of human factors engineering place an overwhelming emphasis on design as the medium yo effect change on an end-system
Definitions of ergonomics emphasize the study of humans at work , including social aspects as an important characteristics About Human Factors Knowledge
Aviation Human Factors is multidisciplinary in nature and has grown by accretions rather than having been developed systematically and deliberately
Scope boundaries and contents are not fixed since our knowledge is always expanding as a result of research
We cannot keep only with a Human Factors Manual written in the 80s or 90s
Current links and bridges with research are important Module 5
Fatigue and Stress Introduction
Fatigue and Stress are classical Human Factors issues
Fatigue and Stress are real threats to Aviation System since both lead to impaired operator performance and both have been referred as factors in accidents
Both share an insidious aspect
The individual inability to recognize the initial impairment Session Objectives
The causes and consequences of fatigue
Fatigue risk management system
Personal fatigue management strategies
Relationships with Stress
Understanding stress mechanisms What is fatigue ?
A state of physical or mental weariness that extend beyond normal tiredness, that results in reduced alertness
The result of a severe lack of adequate rest and sleep
A sleep debt that accumulates until paid off with adequate sleep Types of Fatigue
Physical fatigue concerns the inability to exert force with ones muscles to the degree that would be expected.. Physical fatigue most commonly results from physical exercise or loss of sleep. Physical fatigue often leads to mental fatigue
Mental fatigue , which may include sleepiness concerns a general decrease of attention and ability to perform complex or even quite simple tasks with customary efficiency Fatigue as HF problem in aviation
Human alertness and performance is modulated by sleep need and circadian rhythms
Human therefore are not designed to operate under the pressure of 24/7 schedules common in aviation
Fatigue cannot be eliminated from aviation operations
Night flying
Transmeridian crossing
Irregular and unpredictable schedules
Long duty days
Early reporting times
Reduced sleep opportunities
Overnight away from home base Fatigue challenge
There is a need to develop adequate fatigue risk management approaches to improve human performance
Mitigate sleep loss
Enhance alertness during extended duty time
Cope with circadian factors
In order to reduce /avoid incidents and accidents in which fatigue is a contributor Causes of Fatigue
Fatigue can be result of a variety of factors:
The body's natural rhythms
Work schedule /shifts
Type of task
Work environment
Non work-related issues The Body Clock
Known as circadian rhythms
Operates on a 24-hour cycle
Makes you sleepy when it's dark awake when it's light
Controls a variety of body functions:
Sleepiness
Digestion
Hormone production
Body temperature Sleep
Most people need between 7 and 9 hours per day
It's not true that you need less sleep as you get older
When you sleep makes a difference in how much you get
Sleep is best obtained in a single block Fatigue most common hazards
Fatigue usually results in impaired standards of operation with increased likeliness of error
Increased reaction time
Reduced attentiveness
Impaired memory
Withdrawn mood Fatigue and flight crew
Inaccurate flying
Loss of perception
Missed radio calls
Loss of situational awareness
Symptoms of equipment malfunctions being missed
Routine tasks being performed inaccurately or even forgotten
Falling asleep-either a shot micro-sleep of for a longer period
Not looking at details Fatigue and Air Traffic Controllers
Poor decision making
Slow reaction to changing situation
Failure to notice an impending confliction
Loss of situational awareness
Forgetfulness
Not looking at details A serious Safety Hazard
When you're fatigued:
Your reaction time is slower
You have trouble concentrating or remembering things
You may have difficulty communicating clearly with co-workers
You may fall asleep on the job
There's a greater risk you'll make a safety-critical mistake
Being fatigued can make you a risk to yourself, your co-workers and the public !! Consequences for Health
Fatigue has an important health impact
Studies have found that shift-workers are more likely to suffer from:
Irritability, stress, anxiety and depression
Gastrointestinal problems
Cardiovascular illnesses
Reproductive problems Family and Social Life
Working shifts can make you feel socially isolated you work while others have fun
It can take heavy a toll on family:
Less involved in daily life
Harder to organize domestic chores
Difficulty arranging childcare
Higher risk of divorce
You may be tempted to choose social or family activities over sleep Commuting
One of the most dangerous things you can do while fatigued is driving a car
You may be driving during the very times that your body most wants to sleep
Night shift workers are 4 to 7 times are likely to have an accident driving home Fatigue as a risk in SMS
Pilot fatigue is a significant problem in modern aviation operations, largely because of the unpredictable work hours, ,long duty periods, circadian disruptions and insufficient sleep that are commonplace in flight operations Fatigue Proofing Strategies
Increased supervisor /co-worker monitoring
Working in pairs
Double-check systems
Checklists
Task rotation
Additional breaks
Napping
Moving critical/monotonous tasks to daytime What strategies do you use to stays alert when you're working??? Identifying symptoms of fatigue
Physical signs
Yawning
Heavy eyelids, eye rubbing
Mental signs
Loss of concentration
Lapses in attention
Failures in communications
Doing wrong things
Emotional signs
Quieter than normal
Lack of motivation/stamina
Irritability Sleep disorders that require attention
Insomnia
Sleep apnea
Restless leg syndrome
Narcolepsy
Body clock disturbances ( sleeping during the day) Get the Sleep You Need
Set up your bedroom for sleeping
Make it as dark as possible
Make sure the temperature is right: 18C to 24C
Move distractions to another room
Make sure you won't be disturbed Good Sleeping Habits
Keep to a regular bedtime routine
Wind down before trying to sleep
Be careful what you eat or drink before bed
Don't toss and turn waiting to fall asleep
Adjust your bedtime gradually if your shift changes Take a Nap
Naps can supplement sleep, not replace it
Naps 10 minutes or longer can improve alertness, communication and mood
The value of a nap doesn't depend on the time of day
Allow 5 to 20 minutes for sleep inertia to pass Drink Plenty of Fluids
Dehydration slows you down and increases
feelings of sluggishness
Working in heat , air conditioning, or at night can be dehydrating
Drinking coffee, tea, soft drinks, or alcohol and eating salty foods can make you feel thirstier
Adults should drink at least 2 litres of fluid a day Make Smart Use of Caffeine
Has stimulant effects that can improve alertness and performance
Best used strategically-only when you really need help staying awake
Takes 20 minutes to take effect and the effects can last up to 6 hours
You can develop both a dependence and a tolerance Eating Right
Maintaining blood sugar levels is key to controlling ups and downs in energy levels
Eating low-fat, high-protein foods can actually increase alertness
High-fat foods can slow you down
High-sugar foods can cause your blood sugar to rise and fall quickly Physical Exercise
Good for your overall health
Can help you sleep better and feel more rested
Helps relieve stress , boost your health strengthen your immune function and improve muscle tone and strength
Any activity that keeps your heart rate elevated for at least 20 minutes is good A Healthy, Balanced Life
Get enough sleep
Spend time with friends and family
Enjoy time for yourself
Stay fit and healthy What is stress ??
Stress is a reaction to threatening or challenging circumstances
Stress is the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them
There is a clear distinction between pressure which can create a buzz and be a motivating factor, and stress which can occur when this pressure becomes excessive Classifying Stressors
External
Environmental
Psychosocial
Work related
Internal
Physiological
Cognitive Causes of Stress
Threat
Fear
Uncertainty
Cognitive dissonance Threats and Fears
A perceived threat will lead a person to feel stressed
Perceived threats can be of any nature:
Physical
Social
Financial
Work related
The significance of any threat is higher if the person feels that they have no response or solution available
Threat can lead to actual fear, and fear to imagined outcomes which are the real causes of stress Stress Environmental Factors
Poor work conditions
Temperature
High noise level
Vibration
Crowded space
Air pollution
Humidity
Altitude
Light Stress Psychosocial Factors
Workplace conflicts
Family conflicts
Lack of time/time pressure
Low job satisfaction
Feeling lack of support
Unrealistic expectations
Financial problems
Loneliness
Devalued self-worth Stress Work Related Factors
Poor management practices regarding workload and resources
Work patterns
Process planning in the organization
Control and supervision styles
Individual consideration
Inadequate training
lack of information and data accessibility
Operational pressure at peak hours or non standard operation Life Causes of Stress
Death: of spouse, family, friend
Health: injury, illness, pregnancy
Crime: Sexual molestation, mugging, burglary, pick-pocketed
Self-abuse: drug abuse, alcoholism, self-harm
Family change: separation, divorce, new baby, marriage
Sexual problems: getting partner, with partner
Physical changes: lack of sleep, new work hours
New location: vacation, moving house
Money: lack of it, investing it
Environment change: in school, job,house,town,jail
Responsibility increase: new dependent, new job Stress at Work : other views
The UK's Health and Safety Executive lists six key stress factors:
1 The demand of the job
2 The control staff have over how they do their work
3 The support they receive from colleagues and superiors
4 Their relationships with colleagues
5 Whether they understand their roles and responsibilities
6 How far the company consults staff over workplace changes The Signs of Stress
The theory behind understanding stress is that if you can recognize the symptoms you can manage it
Signs of stress can be of varied nature:
Emotional and cognitive
Physical
Nervous Ways of Managing Stress
Organization
Managers Competences
Processes and Work organization
Information Systems
Training
Continuous Monitoring
Individuals
Training on HF and Stress Recognition
Stress Coping Skills
Communication / Teamwork
Risk Perception / Assessment Stress and Individuals
Stress is a normal physical response to events that make you feel threatened or upset your balance in some way
As such is variable , stress signs and reactions are individually determined
The question is if you are controlling stress or stress is controlling you Human Cognition and Decision Making
Module 6 The way we think
How we think is as important as what we think
The internal working of our minds have long been mysterious but we understand our mental processes much better today than we did 20 years ago
The key issue here is to understand why we do,what we do Cognition
Term related to thinking , reasoning, knowledge processing, human information process, and in general complex mental processing Perception
Sensation is the transduction of energy (light or sound) into neural impulses to the brain
Perception is the interpretation of theses impulses to create meaningful internal representations of our environment
The information process approach to perception argue that there are top-down processes that filter out our perceptions through expectations and hypothesis formation based on memory and culture Perception (2)
Visual sensory system
Visual depth perception
Visual illusions
Form perception
Object recognition
Patterns and scene perception
Auditory perception
Auditory and visual attention
Selective attention
Bottleneck How we process information
Perception is always linked to memory
Memory is divided into three stores: the sensory, the short-term and the long-term
This model represents how we acquire , relate, make sense and use the outside world information in our mind to understand what's going on and to react
Research says that we get inputs from our sensory system, filter or process this information making use of memory buffers and make decisions What is Memory ?
Memory refers to our ability to retain information about past experiences
It covers the process of acquiring , recording or encoding information, the process of retrieving it
Memory is important because it underpins almost every aspect of our behaviour and personalities
Memory is the key of learning Types of memory
We are not consciously aware of most of the things we perceive , we become aware of them only if we consciously direct our attention to them
When we do focus our attention on them, they are placed in our working memory
Working (or short term) memory has a very little capacity, we normally can attend to only seven items at a time from 3 to 20 seconds Long term memory
Stores information and knowledge for a long time, apparently there is no size limit on it
To remember things you will use over and over such as , how to operate your car
To make use of the stored information we must move it back to working memory in a process called retrieval The key is perception
Perception involves the association of meaning to sensory stimuli
The two most important issues here are:
The problem of signal detection and patter recognition
The problem of selection of a mental model to understand the relevant information
Sensory information when flying an aircraft is very large and complex: the pilots must select the most relevant, decode , associate and compare with stored data to make sense and react accordingly Mental process
To connect and to be aware of what happens to us at every moment
To process available information comparing with internal models and memory ( our knowledge)
To evaluate the reality and to orient our actions in an efficient way (make decisions)
To control our reactions and behaviour (feedback) Mental Models
It is representation of the surrounding world the relationship between its various parts and a person's intuitive perception about their own acts and their consequences
Our mental models help shape our behaviour and define our approach to solving problems and carrying out tasks
Is generally founded on incomplete facts and information
Effects as a filter, causing selective perception
We often consider this as the reality Situational Awareness
It's a key issue on Human Factors in aviation
SA has been identified as one the primary factors in accidents attributed to human error
The perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space , the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future
SA is a cognitive process: perception, meaning projection
As such it is subject to bias from several influences SA Definitions
Endsley ( researcher speak)
The perception of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space , the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future
Pilot speak:
Perceiving the features of the environment
Knowing what they mean relative to the flight
Projecting their status into the future SA in short
Keeping track of what is going on around you in a complex dynamic environment
What you need to know not to be surprised
For a pilot: flying ahead his aircraft Elements of SA
Perception
Comprehension
Projection
Space
Time SA Levels
Level 1: Perception: Simply noticing features in the environment
Level 2: Meaning: The assignment of meaning to those features
Level 3: Projection: Mentally simulating the status of those features in the future including risk assessment (what can wrong) Team SA
In aviation people usually work in teams
A team means a group of persons interacting toward a common goal
Team SA is the degree to which every team member possesses the SA required for her/his responsibilities
Requires a shared mental model, shared rules and common language Biases in Operations
Availability Bias - Situation is interpreted using the easiest explanation to generate
Conflicting cues can be ignored or missed
When applied to generating options-explains why snap judgments occur
Experts can be susceptible to availability bias via their use of recognition strategies
Time pressure in conducive to availability bias
High task workload is conducive to availability bias Bias in Operations
Plan continuation bias is the tendency of people to continue to follow their original plan, even in the face of evidence that the circumstances have changed
Apparently, we have an unconscious bias in thinking that leads us to follow out original course of action, particularly when we are close to the end. General conclusions
Situation assessment training should include training on cognitive biases and on metacognitive skills
Evaluators should keep in mind the influence of biases when diagnosing crew behaviors Decision Making
Decision Making is a key element in the information processing by the humans and is related with:
The selection of one choice from a number of choices
Information is available with respect to the choice
Time is available to make a choice
The choice is associated with a level of uncertainty DM and Risks
Decision making training is a way of reducing human errors and bad decisions that results in poor performance Types of Decision - Making
Normative DM: human decision making against rules
Prescriptive DM: human decision making using decision aids
Descriptive or Naturalistic DM: based on how experts make decisions What happens with quick DM?
Humans are not particularly accurate in estimating the frequency or probabilistic events
Humans prefer to use decision strategies that minimize the application of cognitive resources
Humans often use intuition when making decisions Naturalistic DM
Models that have been developed on the basis of descriptions of decision-making in a range of contexts
Based in expert decision-makers
Through experience, expert decision-makers have developed the skills necessary for accurate and efficient decision-making
Firefighters
Military
Pilots A Real scenario in decision making
In real operations we never have ALL he required resources:
Time
Information
Equipment
Energy
Space
Human operators always try to balance demands and resources A few words on remedies
To remedy errors in perception, mental modeling situational awareness and decision making
We need to develop new skills to understand the way we think and its shortcomings
We call that METACOGNITIVE SKILLS
Metacognitive refers to people's automatic awareness of their own knowledge and their ability to understand, control and manipulate their own cognitive processes What is metacognition?
Metacognition has been described as the awareness of one's own knowledge and the ability to understand, control and manipulate one's own cognitive processes
This way metacognition becomes an essential Human Factors skill for workers and managers specially in high risk industries
Metacognition is influenced by personality factors, culture and training
Metacognition is a part of critical thinking, self criticism and retention of safety knowledge Metacognitive Skills
Metagocnitive skills are not only important for trainers and learners at school, but throughout life for everyday business
It is essential that an effective manager be a person who has learned to learn
That is true also for pilots and any skilled operator Human Error
Module 7 The context for errors
Errors cannot be studied as a separate category of human behavior fragments but must be viewed within work-organizational context
In short, errors can be seen as the difference between an actual state and desired state
Current research on human error have changed the focus from individual behavior to the task and social context in which any error my occur Human Error analysis
The problem of human error can be viewed in 2 ways:
The person approach
The system approach
Each has its model or error causation , and each model gives rise to different ways of error management
Understanding these differences has important practical implications for coping with the ever-present risk of mishaps in aviation Person Approach
It focuses on the unsafe acts-errors and procedural violations-of people on the front line
Errors in this context are related to individual human information process and related biases forgetfulness, carelessness and other cognitive issues
The associated countermeasures are directed mainly at reducing unwanted variability in human behavior What is an error?
Errors are about human performance wrong doing or undesired effects
The threshold of what is error not is quite arbitrary depending on the person making the judgement and the context of behavior
Unacceptable or acceptable are expressions that need to be within some action context System Approach
The basic premise here is that humans are fallible and errors are to be expected , even in the best organizations
Errors are seen mainly as consequences rather than causes
There is no a simple framework for errors, and so organizational LATENT ERRORS interact or condition the sharp and ACTIVE ERRORS made by people in front
Countermeasures here are based on the assumption that although we cannot change the human condition we can change the conditions under which humans work How is Human Error Mitigated
Improvements in technology contribute to aviation safety by reducing the opportunity for human error The margin for error: resilience
Organizations seek to create a boundary of operations that allows for variable performance without causing loss
A high level human factor activity is needed to understand where one's operating point is relative to the unacceptable performance margin
Going across that margin means an adverse outcome Resilience and Errors
The operating margin is somewhere related with the interaction of organization's and personal's errors
Resilience is the ability of the system to accommodate for possible errors, normally unpredicted , and cope with new situations keeping the system safe or ready after a failure The human error with a face
The person approach remains the dominant tradition in human factors in aviation
Blaming individuals failures as human error is easier than targeting large organizations
However the individual study of human error can help us understanding how errors grow also at organizations Human Error and Performance
Human error has been cited as a cause or contributing factor in many accidents and incidents
It is important to stress that human error mechanisms are the same as human performance mechanisms
So actions later termed human error are actually part of the ordinary spectrum of human behavior A cognitive field for Human Error
The cognitive study of human error is a very active research filed not only in aviation
The limits of memory and attention
Situational awareness
The decision making strategies such as the availability heuristic and other cognitive biases
Such heuristics and biases are strategies that are useful but can lead to systematic patterns of error Slips and Lapses
Slips and Lapses are forms of error which result from some failure in the execution stage of an action sequence, regardless of whether or not the plan which guided them was adequate to achieve its objective Errors and Violations
Error: when an action deviates from the intention, or when its intention is inappropriate
An error is not intentional
Violation: when one intentionally deviates from regulations, norms or procedures
A violation is intentional and can become routine or an inappropriate norm Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFFACS)
The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was developed initially as a framework to understand human error as a cause of aviation accidents
It is based on James Reason's Swiss cheese model of organization accidents Unsafe Acts
Unsafe acts are performed by the human operator on the front line ( pilot, air traffic controller)
Errors: in perception, decision making, skill based or knowledge based
Violations: routine or exceptional Preconditions for Unsafe Acts
Human operator internal state
Physiological
Mental state ( cognitive)
Competence mismatch, overload
Human operators practices
Poor operators practices
Poor professionalism or airmanship
Unsafe Supervision
Inadequate supervision
Planned inappropriate operations
Failure to correct a known problem
Supervisory violations Organizational Influences
Resource allocation and management
Organizational climate and culture
Organizational processes
Procedures
Schedules or rosters
Management oversight
Proficiency checking Modern view of Human Error
When you are faced with human error problem you can take two distinct directions
You can see human error as the cause of a mishap
There are hundreds of accident and incident reports with probable cause: human error
You can consider human error as the sign of deeper problem
In this case finding an error is just the beginning or starting point for investigation Two views on human error
The old view: human error is the cause of the problem
Systems are basically safe but unreliable people or bad professionals make it unsafe
Bad Apple theory: throw away the bad apple from the basket
The new view : Human error is a symptom of trouble deeper inside a system
To explain failure do not try to find who to blame for
Instead find how people's assessment and actions made sense at the time, under the circumstances that surrounded them
Human error then is not anymore an explanation for trouble on the contrary it demands an explanation Production pressure
Production or operations pressure in aviation is quite high:
Economic pressures, efficiency
Schedules
Competition
Customer service Errors under Pressure
This influences people's trade-offs, making normal or acceptable what previously was irregular or unacceptable
Here lies the complexity of human factors in aviation
When something goes wrong everybody blames the other and eventually the last frontier is at the sharp end: the one making the last decision near the accident Illusion of control in management
Human errors are labeled or related to conditions like:
Loss of situational awareness
Bad decision making
Bad planning
Complacency
Lack of professionalism
Negligence
Poor proficiency
If your effort ends here you are probably missing teh real story behind failure Local rationality
We should assume that normal people at normal environments, like in aviation, don't want to produce accidents: nobody comes to work to do a bad job
Every pilot wants to land safe and have a nice flight the same as the passengers
So after any incident or accident , to make sense and understand WHY it make sense to them doing what they did
This is known as local rationality principle Human Factors and Individuals
Module 9 Let's talk about people at work
Skills, in their most general sense, can be viewed as the trained abilities of people (including management and leadership abilities, technical, scientific and production abilities and soft/interpersonal abilities) for which there is a demand within the formal economy Meanings of Skills
An ability or proficiency at a task that is normally acquired through education, training and/or experience
The term skill is sometimes used synonymously with related concepts of competence, expertise, knowledge or human capital
We can have different level of skills and different types of skills
Aviation Employee Competencies
Safety orientation and understanding
Customer service orientation
Flexibility and adaptability
Communication Skills
Teamwork
Cultural Sensitivity
Integrity and High Ethical Standards
Dependability
Mindfulness
Professionalism The Call on Culture and the People
New Safety Management Systems in Aviation are making a call on the safety culture
Safety focus is also on performance and organization performance are connected more than often
So we have to look at individuals not as factors but as people
Human Capital - Human Resources - Human Factors Competence Management
You need a good initial profiling made by professionals and apply in selection processes using the right and validated tools
You need to understand competence management and make the supervision and follow up having this in scope
Training Design, Training Needs Analysis
Cultural factors: develop sense of belonging to the organization, stimulate professionalism. Motivate for commitment and continuous learning and improvment Individual Strong Set of Values
Employees in any aviation organization should understand the duty of care and responsibilities towards the public: passengers, users, customers
Implication in safety
Understanding the core values of safety and accident prevention
Development of Airmanship and Professionalism
Mentoring role of any manager and supervisor Teams and Individuals
All organization's work is based upon teams and individuals: the integrated of people and work processes
Key players in work organization are all managers and supervisors, team leaders responsible for integrating teams into a coherent WHOLE
The whole issue only work if we have adequate skills matching in well designed work processes
Individuals characteristics can be influenced by training, coaching and motivating the right people
We have to do this also thought the corporate culture Thank you !!
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