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Mark 405 - Subliminal Messages
Transcript of Mark 405 - Subliminal Messages
Remains in production to this day, and still dominant in the market Europe and Asia dominated the energy drink segment from 1960s to 1980s The global market has exploded and is a multibillion dollar industry Marketing implications Brand Recall Memory Recall “In daily life...the retention or dismissal of information often occurs without conscious intent, thereby suggesting an alternative, nonconscious route through which purposive remembering and forgetting can occur.” Mere exposure effect The belief that a new stimuli will be more liked after being repeatedly exposed to it
Individuals tend to prefer what is known and familiar over what they do not know Priming "A form of subliminal memory in which one piece of information can cue recall for another"
Using particular stimuli to cue recall of other associations, memories and ideas Absolute Threshold Everything that enters consciousness
Subliminal messaging does not pass the absolute threshold
Ex. Is a sound loud / long enough to enter consciousness? If it is, then it passes the absolute threshold Associative/Semantic Networks Advertisers can use subliminal cues to cause an association between the product shown subliminally and the situation in which it was presented Unconcious Classical Conditioning There has been evidence that responses can be learned through classical conditioning without conscious awareness of the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus History of Subliminal Messages Types of Subliminal Messages Subliminal Software Quick representation of message on PC that bypasses subconscious and aims to accomplish a certain objective.
ex: lose weight, stop smoking, self confidence.. Subliminal Tapes Dichotic Subliminal Natural Subliminal Backmasking A+ Advertisers can use subliminal messages to gain exposure of their product This exposure leads to higher familiarity with the brand, which in turns leads to a higher likelihood of purchase Problem European energy drink company that struggles to situate its product in saturated North American market
1. Penetrate the high-end market
2. Differentiate itself from competitors in energy drink category
- Target market 18-29 year olds Research Questions 1. How can subliminal messages be used in product design, brand name?
2. Which drives should we be appealing to (i.e. hunger, thirst, sex) in order to effectively
brand product in energy drink category? Topic Use of subliminal messages and how to make it more effective. "Subliminal messages are messages that we are not consciously aware of being exposed to, but can have an influence on our behaviours, preferences, choices, etc."
- D. Walsh, Advertising Professor, JMSB SM can be a subjective experience
“Levels of vigilance” determine
Some with higher engagement with media are more likely to consciously process messages that might be SM for others What are subliminal messages? "No advertisement shall be presented in a format or style which conceals its commercial intent."
(Advertising Standards Canada,"The Canadian Code of Advertising Standards") Supraliminal vs. Subliminal Absolute threshold: Everything that passes into consciousness Recommendations Supraliminal Messages: A message that can be consciously processed, although you may not notice it Limitations Subliminal Messages: A messages that passes just below the threshold of consciousness Focus group only five people
Primary focus was on exploratory research
Further quantitative primary research is warranted for proper decision-making
Both primary and secondary research inconclusive about efficacy of subliminal messages Fundamentally,
Utilizing subliminal messages is a risky move
Frowned upon in advertising industry
Against ASC Code of Conduct
Research is inconclusive
Interpretive inconsistencies (what is supra, sub? difference?) 2. Which drives should we be appealing to (i.e. hunger, thirst, sex) in order to effectively
brand product in energy drink product category? Proposal Subliminal Messages In Product, Brand Design Different messages are played to each ear at the same time, and the aim is to distract the coscious part of the brain, while inputing subliminal messages at the same time into the subconscious part of the brain. The conscious part of the brain will no longer be able to categorize or analyze audio or video messages. These are typical subliminal messages that are beyond the concious perception Messages that are played backwards that tend to have a certain message or image that they want to indirectly exhibit. 1. How can subliminal messages be used in product design, brand name? C SEX DRIVE
Slim, curvatious bottle (personification)
S-E-X in our brand name
Perspiration on wrapper Subliminal Placement in Music Video Similar to Britney Spears video
Fleeting glimpses of product in club context with pop star relevant to target market through quick edits (brand recall)
Insert links into associative network of club/social situations
Frequency would reinforce trace strength
This would aid in brand recall -> preference -> purchase decision
Conditioning to associate positive feelings with brand 1957
Vicary Experiment (Fort Lee, New Jersey)
Vance Packard "The Hidden Persuaders National Association of Radio & Television Broadcaster 1958
US Federal Communication Commission Experiment North American Market was only introduced to Energy drinks in late 90’s (introduction of Red Bull 1997)
Was first introduced to athletes, then marketed toward general public 1962
James Vicary - Fake results 1973
Wilson Bryan Keys "Subliminal seduction" 1974
FCC : subliminal techniques, "contrary to the public interest" 1980s
videos and computer software -- > US$50 million/year Hypothesis Conclusive studies
1979 TIME magazine "Secret Voices" East Coast chain
reduced theft by 37%
1980 WALL STREET JOURNAL : Subliminal message system in a New Orleans supermarket
$50,000 /6 months to $13,000
"I take a great deal of pride in being honest. I will not steal. I am honest." Using subliminal techniques in advertsing, branding and product design enhances its desirability among our target market. Focus Group A+ Questions?