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Brown vs. Board of Edu
Transcript of Brown vs. Board of Edu
Schools were segregated. -NAACP's chief counsel, Thurgood Marshall argued that separate school systems for blacks and whites were inherently unequal.
This case was lost at the state level.
-Brown and the NAACP appealed to the Supreme Court on October 1, 1951 and their case was combined with other cases that challenged school segregation in South Carolina, Virginia, and Delaware.
The Supreme Court first heard the case on December 9, 1952, but failed to reach a decision. The Brown Family Time Line CONS Present Day Time Line PROS Conclusion Team Brown Suburban Parent - Sept 2012 STATS 2007- Little Rock Desegregation Silver Dollar. AMS/AMI/IMC/MACTE Certified Teachers
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Rated 90% above school readiness factors
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Private Kindergarten & After School Programs Academy, Preparatory, Private, & Before/After School Programs Economic Class?? Home prices of $829k, $685k, & $650
How do I know? 2002 March (cc) image by jantik on Flickr + = The children: Vicki Henderson, Donald Henderson, Linda Brown, James Emanuel, Nancy Todd, and Katherine Carper May 14, 1954, all of the Justices agreed to support a unanimous decision declaring segregation in public schools unconstitutional. May 31, 1955, the Justices handed down a plan to proceed with desegregation with "all deliberate speed." EQUALITY when it came to education
Three Primary Categories of Student Outcomes when integrated
Greater educational or occupational aspirations and attainment
Increase social interaction among members of different racial and ethnic backgrounds Article
Brown v. Board of Education at 40: A Legal History of Equal Educational Opportunities in American Public Education
Violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment
Spawned an era of equal educational opportunities Are the claims of lack of progress since Brown vs. Board of Education true?
Influence of social change
Altered attitudes, beliefs & behavior
First step towards racial justice in education
Opens dialog for inter group relations & pride in identity
Brings to the fore front psychology of prejudice & discrimination
What happens when integration does occur, and what are some of the best efforts we can engage in to further full racial and ethnic integration in schools? Social Tension
Economic Impact Social Tension
The "White Flight
Disruption of educational process
for both black and white students Little Rock, AR Economic Impact
Increase in school districts transportation budget due to forced busing.
Loss of tax base due to “white flight” and increased enrollment in private schools by white students who did not want to attend integrated schools. Why not remain separate but truly equal? Many older members of the African American community believe that forced integration was detrimental to the African American community in many ways. Rather than force schools to integrate, many believe the better solution would have been to leave the schools segregation but provide equal resources for all schools.
Desegregating schools was not the answer to social problems in the 1960’s
Black-White Test Scores: Neighborhoods, Not Schools, Matter Most
The authors also attempt to distinguish between the effects of residential and school segregation. Considered separately, each appears to have a negative effect on the relative test scores and educational attainment of blacks students. In statistical models that include both school and neighborhood segregation, though, the effects of relative exposure of black and Hispanic students to their white schoolmates are "uniformly small and statistically insignificant." Although the authors acknowledge that the data could be consistent with equally negative effects of neighborhood and of school segregation, they write that, "Our tentative conclusion is that the neighborhood composition matters more than school composition."
These results -- both the negative effects of segregation, and the indication that neighborhood segregation matters more than does school segregation -- stand up in the face of a variety of statistical tests designed to rule out competing explanations. The segregation effects do not appear to be attributable to differential family background characteristics of black students living in more- and less-segregated cities, nor to resource differences between students' schools.
One potential explanation for the apparent lack of a school segregation effect is the prevalence of within-school segregation: if black students rarely attend class with white students even in cities with integrated schools, these cities may not post higher black test scores even though truly integrated education would have a positive effect. Indeed, the authors find a strong relationship between school integration and at least one proxy for classroom-level exposure: white students are more likely to take honors and advanced placement classes, which typically have few black students, in cities where the schools are integrated than in cities where schools are segregated. Although the authors have no way of measuring direct interactions between students of different races at school, this result suggests that school integration may not achieve high exposure rates of black to white students, potentially accounting for the lack of an integration effect on black students' test scores
National Bureau of Economic Research
Racial Segregation and the Black-White Test Score Gap (NBER Working Paper No. 12078),
NBER researchers David Card and Jesse Rothstein 1974 - Milliken v. Bradley
1986 - Riddick v. School Board
of Norfolk, VA
1995 - Missouri v. Jenkins
2003 - Grutter v. Bollinger
2007 - Parents Involved v. Seattle Boston, MA N.C. Charter Schools "Choice" movement of the 90s
"Race to the Top" Program
Black and White test score gaps
Continual testing progress is required for grant funding
Under performing schools do not receive capital funds and limited to max 100 schools
1 of 6 goals is to reduce achievement gap
Not reaching goal
N.C. 2.5x to be enrolled in racial segregated
Charter schools students have .16 less annual growth in math compared to peers
Annual growth is even lower or black students Is there a limit to the sacrifices you would make for your child? Ohio Mom Kelley Williams-Bolar Jailed for Sending Kids to Better School District Jan 2011 convicted of lying about her residency to have her daughters into a better school district.
Highly ranked school in neighboring Copley-Fairlawn School District
Ineligible due to Akron
Father lived within
Lived part time at
father's home and
used address due to recent
District hired private investigator to video her transit
10 days in County Jail
3 years probation
Repay 30k in back tuition
Criminal Record for Falsifying Residency Her Punishment? Williams-Bolar said she was being singled out.
"I don't think they wanted money ? ," Williams-Bolar said. "They wanted me to be an example."
Presiding Judge Patricia Cosgrove acknowledged as much.
"I felt that some punishment or deterrent was needed for other individuals who might think to defraud the various school districts," Cosgrove said. "The Statements" Ruling paved the way for Integration
and the Civil Rights Movement
August 30, 1956 - Mansfield, Texas
September 25, 1957 - Integration of Little Rock, AK
February 1, 1960 - Lunch counter sit-in Greensboro, NC
April 1960 -The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) formed
May 20, 1961 - Freedom Riders Birmingham, AL
1961 - Freedom Summer
June 11, 1963 - University of Alabama
May 4, 1970 - Killings at Kent State in Ohio