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COM60203 Lec 1 Types of Camera and Lens

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Wai Leong

on 10 April 2015

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Transcript of COM60203 Lec 1 Types of Camera and Lens

Maintain the life of your camera and cut the ability of the damage
Storing correctly
Moisture, excessive temperature, dirt, dust, sand and sudden impact can have detrimental effects on the life span of your camera.
Avoid sudden temperature change, otherwise internal condensation may damage your camera.








Care and Handing of Equipment

External photo storage system – hard disc drive
Copy and transfer all the data from your memory card
Online storage to backup and share your images.








Portable storage

Images that are taken with larger sensor cameras can be enlarged to greater sizes with less loss of image quality.
The better image quality is due to the fact that larger size pixels are able to gather more light and information about the quality of the light.



Digital Camera Image Sensors and Sensor Size

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semi Conductor).
Light measurements taken at the photosites in CMOS sensors are processed simultaneously rather than sequentially. Most of the processing circuitry for converting light to a charge is located at each sensor photosite so that the information doesn't have to be transported to be converted to digital information.
This makes for quicker loading and processing of the information about the light


Digital Camera Image Sensors and Sensor Size

Never force anything in your camera
Clean your camera and lens regularly:
Blow any excess dust off.
Dust and clean the inside and outside of camera with soft brush
Rub the dirt surface gently with clean damp cloth, never use liquid detergents, solvents/ water







Camera and lens Cleaning

An instrument for measuring the
intensity of light.
Help to determine the shutter and aperture settings to obtain correct exposure.
Some camera have exposure meters build in (measure only reflected light)
Measure light falling on the object (incident reading) as well as the light reflected by it ( reflected reading)








Exposure Meters

Lightweight, compact and bendable miniature tripod.
Extremely portable can fit in many camera bags.








Gorillapod

Also known as unipods
Same function like tripod
One singular stuff/pole
Lighter and smaller in size, easy to carry.
Have a ball swivel attached to, allow additional freedom to tilt camera – extremely versatile to use.


Monopod

Hold the camera in a precise position for long time.
When shooting subject that requires shutter to be open for long period of times (to avoid blurring/camera shake).
Monopod
Gorillapods








Tripod

Polarises filters
Colourless and don’t affect color balance
Work by blocking certain light waves from entering lens






Camera Filters/Color Filters

Allow you to fit much more info into your frame, widening your space and subject capture frame.
The compositions are altered and subject takes on new dimensions.





Wide Angle Lens

Typical - 500 mm f/8, though Sigma makes a 600 mm f/8 and there are (more expensive) 1000 mm f/11 models.


Mirror Lens

Record a smaller portion of the scene, with a long-range above 50mm, 100mm, 200mm, 300mm.
Excellent for long range action, sports, portraits and wildlife.




Telephoto Lens

When you are using digital camera:
The digital imaging sensor catches the light and carries out color interpolation in 8X8 grids




It converts the light to analogue charges
It converts the analogue charges to digital







Digital Camera Image Sensors and Sensor Size

CCD (Charge Coupled Device):
A CCD Sensor reads the amount and quality of light captured at each photosite sequentially. (one at a time) That information is then transported to additional circuitry in a different area of the sensor where it is converted to digital information.


Digital Camera Image Sensors and Sensor Size

What is Megapixel?

A megapixel (MP) is a million pixels; the term is used not only for the number of pixels in an image, but also to express the number of image sensor elements of digital cameras or the number of display elements of digital displays.


What is Megapixel?

The digital camera image sensor captures and processes information about the light that enters the camera through the camera lens. There are millions of light collecting areas on a digital camera image sensor that are called "photosites”.
These light collecting photosites are individual picture elements that are better known as "pixels". One million of these pixels are equal to one megapixel.


Digital Camera Image Sensors and Sensor Size

Advantages and disadvantages:
Better manual focusing options
Size and Weight
Fewer moving parts
Video Modes
WYSIWYG
No sound

SLT Cameras

Additional advantages:
Faster response to focus – a sequence of photos of a fast moving object (increased frames per second)
Instant zoom
- effective for recording action shots.


DSLR Cameras

Main advantages:
Quality of pictures
Increased speed and flexibility
No noise or grain due to larger sensors.
Clarity & prefect picture quality.



DSLR Cameras

Super zoom cameras (16MP x 35x Wide optical zoon), covering focal length equivalent to 24-840mm for some good quality, focused close up, abstracts, wide landscapes & event sports, action shots.
Have many manual controls as DSLRs.



Prosumer/Bridge Camera

Between consumer and Professional.
More expensive than compact camera but cheaper than DSLRs.
Increase options and versatility.


Prosumer/Bridge Camera

Invest in a camera bag.
Keep a transparent plastic bag
Get a lens cleaning kit
When Travelling, keep your camera with you.
Keep camera in cool, dry place.
Check shutter speed when stored
Check camera if been in storage for more than 3 months







Simple Steps to Caring for your Camera

Flexible, with bendable legs, can be spiraled and wrapped around virtually anything (versatile)








Gorillapod

Used in fashion photography, sports & paparazzi – useful in limited space where the camera angle needs to move regularly.








Monopod

Different used of wide angle lens:
Landscapes and seascapes (fit so much more details and space within your frame, encapturing the whole mood and atmosphere)
Portraits – fit large group of people within frame, express humour & sense of fun.







Wide Angle Lens

Different used of wide angle lens:
Small, enclosed building (space limited and movement)
Large, monumental, architectural structures (capture a sense of space-grant structure texture)
Close range shots of tall building. (create strong definitions within the lines and forms of structures)






Wide Angle Lens

105mm – most popular
200mm – wildlife
Allow great shooting distances.




Macro Lens

Create impressive abstracts and modern pieces of photography.
Used in wildlife.
Enable to capture intricate detailing, and results in images greater than life size.




Macro Lens

Because of the central return mirror, out-of-focus specular highlights are ring-shaped instead of being circular or polygonal as they would be in a more conventional lens. This makes for a distinctive (AKA strange) bokeh.


Mirror Lens

70-200mm
Much higher magnification
Easier to isolate an object from its environment.




Telephoto Lens

Typical focal lengths for full frame is 15-16mm
Original designed for expeditions to encapsulate entire skies and surrounding grounds, to study cloud formations




Fish Eyes Lens
(extreme Wide angle)

Oval in shape
Super wide angle of 180 degree
Providing extreme wide fields of view
Focal lengths between 8-10mm



Fish Eyes Lens
(extreme Wide angle)

Be aware of:
Longer focal length
More risk of camera shake (build in image stabilization (IS) can overcome)
Leads to blurring.




Zoom Lens

Prime lens
Zoom lens
Fish Eyes lens
Telephoto lens
Mirror lens
Macro lens
Wide angle lens


SLR Lens

Why 50mm – considered the “normal” ?
doesn’t appear as if there is any magnification or other distortion.
Exactly like looking through our own eyes.


Camera Lens

Most consumer cameras use one of the two following types of image sensors.
CCD (Charge Coupled Device)
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semi Conductor).


Digital Camera Image Sensors and Sensor Size

This allows for a drastic reduction in size, putting them closer to compacts than DSLRs.

The concept is to remove the bulky mirror and pentaprism necessary for the optical viewfinder of a DSLR, but to keep the other capabilities, in particular large sensors and interchangeable lenses.


SLT Cameras

Additional advantages:
Wider aperture than that of zoom lenses on compact cameras – shutter speeds can be faster (more light enter camera).
Have control over the DoF (Depth of Field) – create flattering portraits using a controlled shallow DoF.



DSLR Cameras

Have outstanding image quality
Control & versatility
Various prices – budget, mid-prices up to advanced.


DSLR Cameras

Greater amount and manual control.
Better lenses and processors.
Bigger than compact cameras – lightweight, large LCD screen, easier to carry than DSLRs


Prosumer/Bridge Camera

Lightweights, inexpensive, value for money.
Auto-focus/exposure
Good image quality
20x optical zoom


Downside:
Little control on focus/exposure
Limited zoom range, accessories attachment.

Compact Camera

Compact Camera
Prosumer/ Bridge Cameras
DSLR/DSLT

Camera

Polarises filters
Add lots of contrast, creating far more dramatic looking skies.
Remove light reflections from the surface of water and reduce reflecting from objects such as glass.
Can add vividness and contrast to their images.








Camera Filters/Color Filters

To achieve different moods and effects.






Camera Filters/Color Filters

Allow extreme close-up.
Create unique and interesting photographs of subject that human eyes can’t normally see.




Macro Lens

Mirror Lens

Typically these lenses have two mirrors in them, the main mirror being a concave parabolic reflector and a secondary mirror that may be flat or convex to bounce the light from the mirror back toward the camera.


Now to create, distorted or abstract photos.
Create spherical, panoramic shots by “stitching” a few shots together and using warping software.




Fish Eyes Lens

Allow you to get closer to your subject (magnification)
Achieves variety of composition and perspectives in the shortest possible times
Lens magnifies by changing the focal point (indicated in “mm” )




Zoom Lens

One focal length (fixed), focus quick – great sharpness and picture clarity.



Prime Lens

Important part of your camera.
Affect the entire overall images.
50mm – considered the “normal” focal length
Kit lens – usually conservative zoom from medium wide (28-35mm) to medium telephoto (75-85mm) range.



Camera Lens

Example: Canon Powershot Elph 330 use a 1/2.3 size image sensor, Nikon D5300 use APS-C sensor, Panasonic Lumix GH2 use the Four Thirds system sensors.


Digital camera image sensors are made in various sizes.

Digital Camera Image Sensors and Sensor Size

Different standards: Sony has NEX, Panasonic and Olympus use micro-4/3 and Fuji has the X-series.


Mirrorless (or EVIL, for Electronic Viewfinder, Interchangeable Lenses or MILC) cameras are new hybrids which started appearing in 2008.


SLT Cameras


Lecturer & Tutorial :
Ms. Leong Wai Kit
WaiKit.Leong@taylors.edu.my
Ext-5393
C5.44



BMC 2123:
Photography
Semester 4, Year 2

Underwater equipment
Battery and chargers
Desktop and portable printers







Others

Photo by 10 Ninjas Steve – 11mm

Focal length less than 35mm, normally 10-20mm.
Exaggerate the depth and relative sizes within your images.





Wide Angle Lens
Full transcript