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sahaana narayanan

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Africa

By Sahaana Narayanan
3rd period history Africa Ghana's Government A powerful king ruled Ghana. He was the head of the army and had the final say in the judicial system. He was also the leader for religious things and collected taxes on gold that went through the city. The king collected all the gold nuggets or chunks that were found in Ghana. Gold dust was the only thing other people could keep. A large group of officials helped the king rule. The king choose governors to rule different parts of the kingdom like conquered areas. In Ghana the inheritance for the throne was matrilineal which means that it's traced through the woman's family line not the mans. For example the king's sister's son took over. The Rise of Mali When Ghana fell apart Mali rose to power, Mali was founded by Sudiata Keita. A group of West Africans called Mande conquered Kumbi around 1240. The Mande's homeland was Mali which was south of Kumbi and near the Niger River. They built a very large empire and it reached from the Atlantic ocean, beyond the Niger River and from the southern forest to the Sahara. Mali gained much of it's wealth like Ghana had from controlling important trade routes. Upper classes converted to Islam and lower classes usually followed traditional religions. Songhai taxed kingdoms around them to make sure that they were the dominate Kingdom. In return the provinces were given almost full control of themselves. Local chiefs in the provinces still had authority as long as they followed the Songhai's policy. Songhai rulers only interfered in the affairs of the provinces when a situation changed. Each town was represented by government officials that held positions and had responsibilities. Gold Mining in Zimbabwe Rise of Kongo and the People of Kongo Cao was the first European to go to the Kongo kingdom. Kongo people descended from Bantu-speaking farmers. In the 1300s two clans of Bantu people joined together to make Kongo. In the 1400s the king of Kongo, Mani Kongo ruled six provinces and about two million people and he appointed chiefs to control the provinces. Kongo's royal capital was Mbanza and it was built on a plateau. The people of Mbanza lived in straw huts which were scattered around the kings palace. They planted millet and sorghum and gathered fruit, dates, and citrus fruit from forests. The people of Mbanza also made oil, wine, vinegar, bread, and they hunted for meat. Trade in Mutapa Internationally people in Mutapa traded gold and ivory. They sent goods to the town of Sofala and Portuguese ports. Gold mining was important to the economy and by law it was forbidden to say the location of the gold mines. If you broke this law you would get killed and the state owned all the gold in the empire. They mainly bought cloth, beads, silk, ceramic, and glassware. Locally they traded iron to make hoes. Salt trade was important and they grew cotton and produced cotton cloth and made cloth out of baobab bark. Ghana's Military Ghana had a regular army, reserved forces, and elite soldiers. It's military kept the borders secure, put down small revolts, and kept peace and order. The color of the tunics they wore and the number of feathers in their headdress showed their rank. They used weapons like spears, daggers, swords, battle clubs, and bows and arrows. Soliders were well respected and paid. During war the king called the reserved forces and troops of other governors that were under his rule to help him. In the empire every man had to have military training so they could serve if they were called. The elite group of soldiers were pick for their courage, honesty, and intelligence. The elite soldiers were the kings bodyguards, escorts, and military advisers. Ghana's Trade
Each time traders passed trough Ghana they had to pay taxes on their goods. These taxes made Ghana rich. The spread of Islam and Camels helped the Trans-Saharan trade grow. The journey across the desert was difficult because cavern could loss their way and some caverns would try to steal things from other caverns. Also you could die in the desert because you might not be able to find water. Two important trade items were salt and gold. Wangara had a lot of gold and no one knew where the gold was except the people of Wangara. The Wangara's kept the location of the mines secret. West Africans had no source of salt so they got the salt from Taghaza. One method for getting salt was through evaporation the other way to salt was through mining. In Kumbi, the capital city of Ghana was a great market place and it was the busiest market place in West Africa. Many people sold their goods there like ironsmiths, goldsmiths, coppersmiths, weavers, leatherworkers. There were many things that people could buy form the market like slaves, animals, honey, ivory, pearls, and dried fruit, Kumbi also had the largest slave trade. Slaves came from Ghana's southern border, they were captured by raiders and then brought to Kumbi. The process traders used when trading with the Wangarans was a system of silent trade. Traders would bring goods and spread them across the river and beat on a drum to show that they were making an offer and would leave. Then the Wangarans came and put gold dust by the goods, beat the drum and left. The traders would then return and see if the gold dust was enough, if it was they would take it and leave. If not they would leave and wait for the Wangarans to put down more gold dust. Other Trade in Ghana The Decline of Ghana The two reasons why Ghana weakened was because of war and the loss of natural resources. In the 11th century Almoravids, muslim warriors attacked Ghana's empire. And in 1076 they captured Kumbi, the king regained power in 1087 but the old empire already fell apart. Trees and water became scarce because the population was growing. Trees were being cut down to be used as charcoal for iron-smelting furnaces. framers couldn't grow their crops anymore because water was so scarce. So people were left to find better conditions. Ghana Mali Islam in Mali The leaders of Mali had accepted Islam, but they didn't practice all of it's teachings. In 1312 Mansa Musa became the ruler of Mali. He was the first West African leader to practice Islam devoutly. Musa made a hajj to the city of Makkah. After eight months of traveling he got to Cairo Egypt in July !324. There were 500 slaves in front of him and each had a six-pound staff of gold, he was followed by a cavern of 200 camels carrying 30,000 pounds of gold, food, supplies, and clothes. Then he left Cairo to go to Arabia to visit Medinah and Makkah. When people heard he was coming they lined the streets to see him. The rulers and people of Arabia were surprised to see how much wealth Musa had. Because of his hajj Mali and the Rest of West Africa gained importance as an Empire and Mali appeared on a European map in 1375. During Musa's hajj he gave gold to every village he went to. The villages economy got erupted because of this. Oral tradition in Mali Oral tradition was very important because before the people of Mali, the Mandes had written history griots memorize all the history. Griots are verbal artists, they tell stories, sing songs, and recite poems and usually play a drum or stringed instrument during their performance. They preformed music, dance, drama and educated people of historical accounts and accounts of ancestry. Every village had a griot and they mermorized all the important events. Some griots could tell everybody's ancestry going back centuries. Griots were trusted adviser to rulers. Songhai Zimbabwe Kongo Government in Songhai Islam in Songhai Islam wasn't practiced seriously by early rulers in Songhai. In the 1490's Muslims in Songhai rebelled and they placed a devoted Muslim on the throne, Askia Muhammad Toure. He opened religious schools, built mosques and opened his court to muslim scholars and poets around the world. Toure made sure that Islam was practiced properly and he led a series of wars to make non-muslims convert to Islam. Economy in Songhai There was economic trade throughout the empire because of the armies in the provinces. The independent gold fields was the main reason the economy was doing good. There was a lot of gold so it was usually traded for salt. Salt was hard to get so gold could be traded for the equal weight of salt. The merchants who are also called Julla had partnerships and the state protected the merchants. The economy was based on the clan system. The clan you were in would decide you job. The most common jobs were metalworkers, fisherman, and carpenters. The Decline of Songhai After the Emperor Askia Daoud died a civil war of succesion started which weakened the empire. The Morocco's sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur of the Saadi Dynasty sent an invasion under Judar Pasha. Judar was a spaniard but he was captured when he was little and was taught at the Saadi court. Judar's forces captured the salt mines in Taghaza and then went to Gao. The emperor Askia Ishaq met Judar at the Battle of Tondibi in 1591. Songhai had a bigger army but, they didn't win the battle because there was a cattle stampede that was triggered by the Saadi's gunpower. Then Judar went to attack Geo, Timbuktu, and Djenne which destroyed Songhai. Mutapa
(Monomutapa in Portuguese) Decline of Mutapa During the 15th century Mutapa stayed united and made sure the Portuguese couldn't gain control of the markets and trade routes. The greatest threat was that people in the empire were fighting against each other which led to both sides asking the Portuguese for military help. In the 1607 and 1629 they signed a peace treaty to make Mutapa a portuguese vessel and to give up thier gold mines, but none went into use. But one part of the 1629 treaty acted which let Portuguese have settlements in Mutapa. Then in 1663 the Portuguese put one of their own people on the throne. Mutapa Religion Religion revolved around rituals of meeting spirits and worshiping royal ancestors. The ancestors advised the king through someone that was picked by the court. These people were known as mhondoros and they took care of shrines inside the capital. The mhondoros were also like griots because they recorded the names and deeds of past kings. Local lords called Fumos, usually were related to the king and were appointed to rule in provinces. After a while these lord became hereditary. The Shona used gold to make jewelry and ornaments. The Shona are Bantu speaking farmers and cattle raisers. They didn't really care about gold because it wasn't as useful as iron because it was to soft. But coastal trades thought gold was valuable. The Shona found some gold in rivers and streams. They started mining for gold underground in the 1100s. Archaeologists figured out that mostly women and children mined in the shafts. The Shona got gold out of rocks by building fires next to them. This caused the rock to split because of the change in temperature which made it easier to get the gold. Zimbabwe was wealthy because of mining and trading gold. The Builders of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe was built between 1000 and 1300 A.D. by the Shona. The Shona choose to settle here because the plateau had a lot of rain for the crops and the trees, trees could be used for firewood and building material. Another reason they settled here was because there were no tsetse flies and the earth had a lot of granite, iron, copper, and gold. By the 1100's the Shona created a society that was complex and the population of Zimbabwe had grown. Some historians think that the Shona could have ruled the surrounding city states by using diplomacy. They could have made the city states give them tribute like in ivory, gold dust, and food. All their power came from the gold and ivory trade which helped them stay in power. The Decline of Mali When Mansa Musa died in 1332 Mali was ruled by some kings that weren't able to to protect Mali. Berber nomads attacked caravan routes and threatened to capture Timbuktu. People from the southern rainforest raided the southern border of Mali. And in the west the Songhai people started to revolt. The Songhai was along the Niger near Gao. Songhai fought off Mali's control for hundreds of years. Sometimes they won against Mali and sometimes they lost. When Mansu Musa rued most of Songhai and Gao were under Mali's rule. When he died Songhai stopped paying taxes to Mali. Then in 1435 a prince of Songhai, Sunni Ali declared independence for Gao. With the help of Songhai warriors he fought for Mali and tried to regain the city. Mali started to weaken because of all the attacks. Then the Berber nomads took over the trade and learning centers in Timbuktu and Walata. And Songhai started to conquered their neighbors and expand their kingdom. The Decline of Zimbabwe The chiefs of Zimbabwe's gold producing province declared independence in 1450. One of these provinces was a group led by king Mwene Mutapa, they formed an empire called Mononutapa by conquering neighboring kingdoms. In 1490 civil wars started to break out. In the 1500s the empire split in two. Monomutapa stayed as the northern half but Changamire took over the south. At the same time Portuguese started trading with Monomutapa and then they took over by controlling Monomutapa's markets and gold mines. Portuguese in Kongo Portuguese traders developed good relationships with the people of Kong. In 1490 the portuguese sent missionaries and teachers to teach the Mani-Kong and the people in his court. A missionary is a person who goes to a foreign place to teach religion. When the missionaries were there the Mani-Kong converted to Christianity. Later his son became the king and was baptized with a christian name which was Affonso I. Affono adopted many portuguese customs and he encouraged people in his court to go to school. Some people didn't like the portuguese influence and wanted the king to go back to local traditions. By the 1500s Portugal started to settle at the Island of Sao Tome. Most of the people who settled at Sao Tome were criminals who were being sent out of Portugal. They didn't care about the African all they wanted was to have a better life. The governor of Sao Tome discovered that sugar grew there and he started looking for workers. He knew that slaves would coast the least so he asked Africa for some. At fist Affonso gave him slaves because he didn't realize they treated slaves differently then Africa. Africa let slaves live with their family and they could eventually get free. But the Portuguese worked them so hard that they could die. Trade in Kongo Kongo wasn't a rich farming area but it was a great crossroad for trading. In Kongo they traded iron, copper, salt from the sea, ivory, and raffia a fiber made of palm trees. They traded by land and river and they used seashell called cowries for money. When they started trading with the portuguese in the 1400's the Mani-Kongo gave them high-Quality copper. The Mani-Kong thought the portuguese would give them things like guns, knifes and cloth but, the portuguese didn't want to sell them anything that helped their society. The portuguese only traded things like china, mirrors, and hats. In the 1500s the portuguese started trading with the Mani-Kong for slaves.
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