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Chapter 3: An Age of Exploration and Isolation
Transcript of Chapter 3: An Age of Exploration and Isolation
What fueled the age of exploration?
The Dutch had largest fleet in the world (over 20,000 ships)
English also had very powerful fleet
- Both pressured Portugal
Took some of Portugal’s power in Asia, began to battle each other
Slowly took over Muslim spice trade in India
- Gained control of Straight of Hormuz
Prevented Muslim traders from reaching India
- Reached E. Indies, gained control of Spice Islands
- Sold items to Europeans for less than the Muslims or Italians ever did!
Pope Alexander VI drew an imaginary line through Atlantic Ocean
- Line of demarcation
Spain received land to the west of the line
Portugal received land to the east of the line
Reaches Caribbean (North America)
Portugal believes he has reached Asia
RIVALRY between Spain & Portugal begins
Write a paragraph explaining why your country ended up succeeding/failing during the age of exploration.
What specific events/rivalries/attacks etc. helped it to flourish or fail?
Muslims: 1,000-300-200-500= 0
Italy: 1,000-300-200-500= 0
Dutch East India Company & British East India Company established
- Dutch East India Company richer & more powerful
* Were able to drive England out of East Indies region
* Seized Spice Islands from Portugal
With the help of explorer Ferdinand Magellan, Spain conquers the Philippines
Christopher Columbus convinces Ferdinand & Isabella to finance a voyage to Asia across the Atlantic Ocean
Helped to establish trade outposts in W. Africa
Founded navigation schools
-Taught how to use new Tech and techniques
Muslim traders sold Asian goods to Italian merchants,
Italians controlled trade routes across Mediterranean
Italians, resold items at increased prices to merchants throughout Europe
Italians & Muslims: Start with 1000 points
Everyone else: Start with 200 points
How does this make other European countries feel?
What might their reactions be?
What were some of the reasons Europeans began to explore beyond the boundaries of Europe?
What advantages did Portugal have that allowed this nation to lead the way in exploration?
What were some of the new tools of exploration and why were they important?
Problem: European ships could not sail against wind
- Triangular sails allowed it to sail against the wind
Astrolabe (Muslims): Calculate latitude/longitude
Magnetic compass (Chinese): Explorers could track direction
(1488) Rounded southern tip of Africa
Vasco de Gama
(1498) Reached Calicut, India (direct sea route to India!!)
- Returned home with cargo worth 60X the cost of the voyage
-200 for Muslims & Italians
+600 for Portugal
+600 to Spain
+550 for Spain
+ 600 Dutch
- 300 England
- 400 Portugal
+500 for Portugal
-300 for Italy
-300 for Muslims
Focused energy specifically on India after failure with Dutch
Developed successful business trading Indian cloth
+500 for England
Diet of a Medieval Peasant
Average days wage = $217
Price of Spices in 1438-39
Ch 4: The Atlantic World
Section 1: Spain Builds an American Empire
Thought he landed in the East Indies - "Indians"
- Actually Caribbean (Bahamas)
Searched for gold (not successful)
- Kept looking by exploring islands and claiming
them for Spain
Columbus Returns to Spain
Reports what he found
Spain funds 3 more expeditions
Becomes an "Empire Builder"
- Fleet of 17 ships and 1000 soldiers/colonists
Spain turns Caribbean into a Colony
Eventually Spain will control
-Southern North America
- Central America
- Western South America
Lands on shores of Mexico (600 men)
- Marched inland claiming land for Spain
Conquistadors - Spanish Explorers
Encouraged by rumors of gold and silver
Cortes Conquers The Aztecs
Aztec Empire- modern day Mexico
Cortez reaches Tenochtitlan - Aztec Capital
Montezuma II - Aztec Emperor
Thinks Cortes is a God!!! - Give them gold
Cortes and his men are not satisfied
- Conquistadors kill Aztec warriors
- Aztecs rebel and kick them out
Cortes Conquers The Aztecs Continued...
Conquistadors Strike Back
1. Superior weapons
2. Allied with natives
- Hated Aztecs (human sacrifice)
- Measles, Mumps, Smallpox, and Typhus
- Aztecs have no immunities
- Devastated natives
Spanish Conquest Peru
Fransisco Pizarro - Conquistador with 200 men
Meet with Incan Ruler Atahualpa
- Atahualpa brings 30,000 men
Spanish ambush/defeat the Incans and kidnap Atahualpa
Spanish Conquest Peru Continued...
Spanish ransom Atahualpa
- Incans pay 24 tons of gold and silver
Execution of Atahualpa
Conquistadors still kill Atahualpa
- He is to be burned at the stake
- Given a chance to be strangulated instead if
he converted to Christianity which he did.
Pizarro Captures Incan Capital Cuzco
Spanish settlers in America - Peninsulares
Conquistadors + native woman = Mestizo
- Spanish and Native American mix
Spain Settles down
Spain Exploits Natives
Encomienda- "Slave" forced labor
- Natives farmed, ranched, mined
Spanish Landlords are given right by Spanish Authority
- Promised to act fairly and to respect workers
Many natives under this system abused, and worked to death
- Mining was dangerous
Spain Exploits Natives Continued...
33:23 - end
Chapter 4: The Atlantic World
Section 4: The Colombian Exchange
and Global Trade
The colonization of the Americas introduces new items into Eastern and Western hemispheres
From the Americas-
Corn, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, and cocoa beans become crops in Eastern Hemisphere
From Europe, Africa, and China
Bananas, Black eyed peas, yams,
sugar, wheat, barley, rice, and oats.
Horses, cows, sheep, and pigs.
- global transfer of food, plants, animals
European diseases kill millions of Native Americans
- Measles, Mumps, Smallpox, and Typhus
1500 A.D. 25-30 Million
1550 A.D. 3 Million
- Growth in trade changes
economic practices in Europe
The Rise of Capitalism
Capitalism- based on private property, profit
• Increase in business leads to inflation
(rising prices) in Europe
• Gold, and silver from Americas cause high
inflation in Spain
• Joint-stock company lets investors share risk and
profits of business (East India Company)
• These companies help fund colonies in America
The Growth of Mercantilism
New Economic Policy
Policy of mercantilism emphasizes national wealth as source of power
- First way a nation gained wealth and power
More Gold = More Power
- Finite amount of gold in the world.
- Whoever has the most is the most influential
Favorable balance of trade
- Second way a country gained wealth and power
- when a nation sells more goods than it buys
Colonies provide raw materials that home country uses to make goods
ex. wood, fur, cotton, tobacco, sugar.
Balance of Trade
European Society Changes
Increase in trade lead to growth in towns and cities
- Merchant class begins to grow and increases in wealth
- Most Europeans still lived in rural areas (poor)
Rise in Nationalism
- Increase in nationalism (pride in country)
- Nations now have their own identity
- Monarchs become more powerful (King/Queen)
The Colombian Exchange
Joint Stock Company
1/10 of 10 ships?
Portuguese made goods 1/5 their previous price.
Affordable for common people
(demand rose for consumer goods and luxuries)
This causes other European countries to race to copy the Portuguese and also explore and colonize.
Ch 4 Reading Quiz - A
1. What were two of the 3 "G"s that urged people/countries to explore?
2. Prince Henry the Navigator was from which country?
3. Who suggested the Treaty of Tordesillas?
God, Glory, Gold
The Pope (Alexander VI)
History Channel Mankind The Story of All of Us Episode 8 12 Treasure
History Channel Mankind The Story of All of Us Episode 7 12 New World
26:20 - End