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Group 3 EDUC 518 Concept Map Template

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Clayton Austin

on 15 March 2016

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Transcript of Group 3 EDUC 518 Concept Map Template

Coca cola has an incredible marketing team. The video here demonstrates modeling quite clearly. The first person who pushes the button that says "push" is rewarded instantly with a Coke, and when an individual observes (Attention) this, he remembers (Retains), and Reproduces the action, with the expectation that he will receive a similar reward (Motivation).
EDUC 518 CONCEPT MAP
All about:
concept map
ELEMENTS
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Operant Conditioning
Factors in external environment that influence the behavior the persons exhibits
Organisms are "operating" in their environment to obtain or avoid a particular consequence
Removing something unwanted encourages the students to learn new behaviors (Snowman, 2013, p. 149-150)
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Kira OTVR
B.F. Skinner's operant conditioning theory proposed four solutions to instructional weaknesses he observed: 1. The teacher should be clear about what is going to be taught. 2. The teacher should teach first. 3. Material should then be presented in small, manageable steps. 4. Students should be allowed to learn at their individual pace (Snowman, 2013, p.154).
In the original lesson, these four techniques are apparent. The instructor presents what the lesson objective is, the material is broken into conceptual and behavioral steps and presented verbally, and the student is allowed to make mistakes.
BEHAVIORISM
All about:
Steps to Problem Solving:
1. Realize a problem exists
2. Understand the nature of the problem
3. Compile relevant information
4. Formulate and carry out solution
5. Evaluate the solution
Snowman, 2013, p. 222

A teacher can focus on this skill by teaching students to think critically about the information they encounter in class and in their lives. Teachers can discuss current events, advertisements, or even classroom procedures and encourage students to question statements made or search for weaknesses and errors. Teachers can use problems detected by students in later problem-solving activities.
In the video, the science teacher brought the students through a problem solving technique where they developed their own question based on the crickets and worked together to figure out how to find the answer.
Erica
The instructor can bring in a more creative thinking and relatable aspect to the lesson:
Identify pronouns and antecedents in familiar song lyrics
Having the students create sentences or some form of creative writing themselves and identify the pronouns and antecedents
COMPLEX COGNITIVE PROCESSES
All about:
IPT focuses on the following:
understanding how people acquire new info
how to create and store mental representations of info
how to recall info
how what they know determines how they will learn (Snowman, 2013, p. 167)
Joanne
The amount and quality of prior knowledge students come to school with greatly affect how much and how well they learn (Snowman, 2013). How do we assist young learners who may come to school having fewer schemes or less information in their long-term memory with which to connect new material?
In the video, the instructor uses certain instructional methods to ensure that students are attentive to the most important information she is presenting. Snowman (2013) indicates that we focus our attention on and thus process only a fraction of the information stored in our sensory register (p.169), thus teachers should make use of techniques that direct students' attention to crucial information in order that students retain it in working memory for active use as well as in long term memory(p.178). The instructor in the video stresses the most essential instructions by first indicating in an emphatic voice that the next step is "a little trickier," and then clearly and slowly articulating each word of this next step. The print she shows the class on the overhead projector also guides students' attention towards the most important information through the use of capital letters and bold print. Additionally, alternating between bold/caps and italics to distinguish directions from examples visually groups and thus organizes the information for easier consumption.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY
All about:
The Process of Equilibration
Equilibration - getting new info and experiencing disequilibration b/c we don't know where it falls in the existing schema
Assimilation: Adding new info to existing schema
Accomodation: info doesn't match w/ existing schema; change existing schema to accommodate new info
Equilibrium is reached again (Snowman, 2013, p. 23-24)
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY
Nodes and Networks

node
- a learning community
network
- connections between nodes through which resources are shared

"The starting point of learning occurs when knowledge is actuated through the process of a learner connecting to and feeding information into a learning community" (Kop & Hill).


The students take advantage of the network between themselves, using each other as sources of knowledge and ideas they do not possess independently; knowledge is distributed between them in the interaction of their diverse opinions. Additionally, the connectivist perspective emphasizes the importance of detecting patterns and connections in seeming chaos (Siemens, 2004). These students are attempting to relate past experiments and their tools, processes, procedures to their present task, uncovering patterns in the way similar experiments are performed. Additionally they are attempting to detect a pattern of behavior or survival in crickets in connection to the temperature of their environments.
Joanne
Drawing on Kira's idea to incorporate youtube videos into the lesson, the instructor can show the student a youtube video tutorial of the airplane making process she has learned. She can encourage the student to read comments from other viewers about their attempts to make the airplane, how well theirs flied and why, or what adjustments they suggest. Does she agree with these comments? As many youtube comments may not provide substantive insight, the student can also practice critically assessing the value of the information available to her. The instructor can then ask the student to post a response or write her own comment about her experience making and flying the paper airplane. Does she like this method? Is there another she finds more effective and can suggest to the others? In this way, she will be drawing on and contributing to a collective body of knowledge.
All about:
Teachers can apply constructivist practices by:
guiding rather than telling
seeking diverse perspectives
creating an atmosphere that emphasizes active participation (Snowman, 2013, p. 216)
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
T
he students are also engaging in situated learning in which they must solve a complex, meaningful problem by drawing on a variety of information and skills (Snowman, 2013). The exploration of crickets and their environment provides a meaningful context in which students can exercise higher-order skills and cognitive processes as well as apply information learned from past experiments.
In addition, each student's understanding of how to engage in experimentation is constantly being tempered, informed, challenged by his or her partner. The students are negotiating their own knowledge through contact and conflict with that of their partners.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
CONSTRUCTIVISM
All about:
ARRM -what makes modeling effective

A
- attention
R
- retention
R
- reproduction
M
- motivation

*if the learner has not undergone this process, modeling has not occurred
Is there a way to assess students for self-regulatory skills so that the teacher can use the results to plan instruction?
In the Nissan Commercial, the dad is meant to be a model for a target audience. The modeled behavior is most likely driving or owning a Nissan, but the dad also models the relationship between a dad and his son.
What makes the dad an effective model:
he is similar in age or gender to the target audience (male, middle-aged)
he exhibits gender-appropriate "masculine" behavior (he races cars, he's a dad that has a strong relationship with his son)
he is competent in the task being learned (he's a prize-winning driver, he also appears to be a loving dad)
he has prestige (he wins the race)
Joanne
The instructor can attempt to model the process of making a paper airplane by ensuring that the student goes through the ARRM process. First, she can ensure the student watches the procedure, retains the steps by having the student name them, reproduces the steps by asking the student to perform the procedure himself, and feel motivated to complete the task by providing a game and prize at the end of the lesson to spark interest and enjoyment.
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
According to Snowman (2013), sociocultural theory maintains that social and cultural forces shape the way we think so that it reflects the values of the culture (p. 32). The teacher in the video creates a culture within the classroom that urges students to think of themselves as capable of success and achievement; students begin class by reciting affirmations in which they tell the class their goals and assert their capacity to achieve them. The classroom culture that surrounds the students inculcates its beliefs and values into the student until they are internalized and students come to think and act in ways that reflect this culture; perhaps they will go onto college and successful careers, believing as their teacher does that achievement is within their grasp. Snowman defines theoretical learning as "learning how to use psychological tools across a range of settings and problem types to acquire new knowledge and skills" (p. 36). Within each of the activities the students engage in, they are learning the importance of using certain psychological tools through approaching problems in certain ways, taking notes, evaluating and learning from their performance. The teacher is scaffolding students' ability to solve problems and use these tools by providing them the opportunity to do so in the controlled and supportive environment of the classroom, under his expertise and through relationship. Through this apprenticeship and their internalization of skills and thinking processes, students will be able to engage in such tasks on their own beyond school, in their careers and further studies.
Coryna -- OTVR:
I will give feedback to the students as the students complete the sorting and graphing task assigned, a dynamic assessment.

SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY
All about:
Questions
Can learning objectives be changed throughout the teaching process if we find that the students do not have the prior knowledge to get to the final outcome?

Application to Video
In the video "Group Test", it seems that the students were given multiple
conditions for evaluation
which included:
1.)
Using each other as a source to solve the equations
2.)
a

calculator which was used as a tool to check their intuition vs. getting an answer
3.)
Data to evaluate from various sources

Erica
Develop my own learning objective for my video--> The students will be able to recognize the
antecedents of pronouns
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
All about:
Joanne
Summative Assessment:
"Assessment of learning"
occurs at the end of a longer period of learning
determines to what extent student has met the instructional objectives, often used to assign grades
forms include: final exams, end of unit exams
(Snowman, 2013, p. 309)
Formative Assessment:
"Assessment for learning"
conducted continuously while learning is occurring
used to provide feedback to students about their learning, detect any problems in instruction, and inform instructional decisions to better support student learning
forms include: formal and informal assessments - quizzes, homework assignments, worksheets; observations of student behavior, direct questions posed to students
(Snowman, 2013, p. 309)
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
All about:
Main Ideas:
Create as many stickies for main ideas as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Application to video:
Create as many stickies for this as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Ideas for your OTVR:
Create at least one sticky for each group member. Make sure to label your sticky(ies) with your name.
MOTIVATION & SELF REGULATION
Learning objectives indicate explicitly what we want students to learn and how we will expect them to demonstrate their learning (Crispen, 2012).
Learning objectives must contain a
verb
(cognitive process) and a
noun
(content/knowledge) (Anderson & Krathwol, 2001, p.4-5).
They can also contain
conditions for evaluation
and
performance standards
(Crispen, 2012).

When developing learning objectives
it is important to ask yourself:
What is important for students to learn in the limited school and classroom time available?
What is worth learning?
What are the most relevant or important differences among the "parts" in the context of the whole? (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 6,8)

Global Objectives
: require a significant amount of time to accomplish, are broad, include more specific objectives to complete the larger objective, provides the "vision"
Educational Objectives
: a more specific form of the global objective, desribe student behavior i.e. "The ability to read musical scores"
Instructional Objectives
: More specific than educational objective, focuses on day-to-day learning using specific content areas (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 15-16)
Alignment
measures the degree to which learning objectives, instruction, and assessment are consistent with and support one another (Anderson & Krathwol, 2001, p. 10). In "Group Test," the instruction and assessment are aligned in that, in class, students must work collaboratively on mathematical issues, just as they must work together to solve complex problems during their assessment.
For each unit, you will have one or more sets of sticky notes to use to complete your concept map assignment. Note that some units have TWO topics (e.g., connectivism and constructivism). Be sure to complete ALL of the stickies for that week. Use different color notes to differentiate between topics. Use lines and arrows to create branches that connect ideas to each other. Please do not rearrange the units, or it will be very difficult for your instructor to find that week's content; you may, however, ADD stickies, images, videos, arrows, lines, etc. as needed. Be sure to add any new additions to the path.
Joanne
Possible learning objective for OTVR:
Student will be able to execute (v) the steps to make a paper airplane (c).

Does deciding before learning has occurred how students will be expected to demonstrate their knowledge (conditions for evaluation and performance standard) limit students' individual learning processes and autonomy?

In my opinion, yes, to some extent. Anderson and Krathwol (2001) indicate that the "lock-step nature of objectives" may make them ill-suited for certain subjects or activities that allow students to learn in their own unique way from an experience (p.21). Higher-order objectives that include the cognitive process "create" allow students to apply what they've learned to create new solutions to problems or new products, but these opportunities for expression are still subject to the conditions of the assessment.
Coryna- Students use the yellow sheets and calculators as tools to guide them to the answer needed. Consequently, objectives that relate to Metacognitive Knowledge may be assessed in the context of classroom activities and discussions of various strategies (Anderson and Krathwohl, p. 61.). Certainly, courses designed to teach students general strategies for learning and thinking (e.g., classes on learning strategies, thinking skills, study skills) engage students in learning about all three aspects of Metacognitive Knowledge (Anderson and Krathwohl, p. 61).
Coryna
A possible learning objective could be: The students will use their number sense to count, sort by color, and graph an assigned group of M&Ms.
Coryna
What is important for students to learn in the
limited school and classroom time available?
(the learning question)
(Anderson & Krathwohl; 2001, p. 6)

In my opinion, this depends on the content being taught, the prior knowledge of the students and the what you want the learning outcome to be for the students.
What objectives aren't:
Means, but ends - in other words, objectives do not describe activities, but the goal of the activity (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 17)
Instructional activities; rather objectives should be led to by instructional activities
Ask yourself: "What do you want your students to have learned?"
Kira
The instructional objective the teacher in the group test video has for his students is for them to be able to write the equation of a parabola, connect it to writing the rule for a sequence, and apply to all similar situations
Scope: moderate
Time needed: Week(s)

Kira: OVTR
The student will be able to perform a C major scale with the classical piano fingering, with no hesitations.
verb - perform (how to get around behavior vs. cognitive process verb)
content - C major scale with classical piano fingering
performance standard - with no hesitations
Good work on this one!

In regards to changnig LO's if students do not have the pre req.... note that we are rarely able to make one statement about ability for all students as they are unique. If a student is not able to achieve an objective based on the approach succesfully for msot students they may require differentieated instruction but this is not a different objective, jsut a different way to reach the objective.
The Snowman text seemed to be advocating for the use of direct instruction, providing several steps to make the practice optimally effective. while our discussion seemed to do the opposite. Why does it seem like the text was somewhat disconnected with our conclusions of the effectiveness/usefulness of direct instruction? -Kira
Joanne
Weaknesses of Behaviorism
in the Classroom:
While it can be useful for classroom management, behaviorism
provides an incomplete picture of student learning
in that it does not take into account cognitive and social considerations.
Figures teacher as active agent controlling student behavior and students as passive respondents without control over their own learning.
Teacher can't be everywhere at once to monitor all behaviors of students.
Reinforcement vs. Punishment
Reinforcement
always
manifests as an increased behavior
either positive (presentation) or negative (removal)
Punishment
always
manifests as decreased behavior
either positive (presentation) or negative (removal)
-Kira
Negative vs. Positive
Negative = removal
Positive = presentation

Note: Negative does not mean "bad"

-Kira
Coryna- Ideas for your OTVR:
The behavior is to count M&Ms.
Behavior modification
"...refers to the use of operant conditioning techniques to...modify behavior" (Snowman, 2013, p.157)
Examples include token economies, contingency contracting, time-out, punishment, response cost (Snowman, 2013, p.157-160)
-Kira
Joanne
Weaknesses of Behaviorism
continued:
Gives teachers power that can be used in ways that are unethical or in ways that promote obedience over critical thinking (Snowman, 2013, p. 165).
Students may develop "
what's in it for me?" attitude
in that they expect constant reinforcement to motivate activity rather than regulating their own learning (Snowman, 2013, p. 165)
Curious to see research on corporal punishment, if there is any available. -Kira

Snowman (2013) talks about how research was being done to determine the factors and usage of coporal punishment:
Aggressive behavior in children
Inconsistent discipline from parents
Childs attitude towards the punishment (Snowman, 2013, p.164)
Low internalization of moral rules
Delinquent and anti-social behavior
Low quality parental relationships
Joanne
Mr Kip uses behaviorist techniques to modify and elicit certain behaviors from his students. Because these strategies target behavior, they are useful to Mr Kip in giving students ways to assert, using gestures and phrases, the fact that they are paying attention or understand a certain point. However many of these elicited actions are short and simple and don't necessarily actually demonstrate cognition; rather, they are trained, memorized responses, almost like reflex reactions (stimulus-response). Mr Kip's objective for the students is to summarize (understand) a paragraph IYOW, which is a more advanced cognitive process than memorizing. Additionally, his modeling of his own thought process as he reads the text indicates that a cognitive process is necessary in completing the task and that he expects students to undergo their own cognitive processes using thinking strategies he explains. Thus, Mr Kip makes use of behaviorist strategies to elicit behaviors and attitudes conducive to learning (attentiveness, responsiveness) but uses other methods to engage students cognitively and shape thinking processes as well.
Joanne
The Snowman text (2013) touches on the idea that using behavioral modification may be considered unethical (p.165); however it focuses more on whether or not certain methods are effective. Behavioral modification does involve a kind of manipulation of which the student is sometimes unconscious. On the other hand, some of these methods are pretty intuitive and are often used unconsciously in human (and human-animal) relationships. Where and how do we draw the line between unethical and ethical applications of behavioral modification?



Coryna- In reference to the Welcome to the Week video from Unit 3 in our coursework, behaviorism is defined as a "central theory where learning is an observable change in behavior. Nothing that happens in the brain out of sight of the educator is really relevant."

Coryna - The Welcome to the Week video from Unit 3 in our coursework also mentioned, "If you show it, you know it. If you don't show it, then you don't know it."
Coryna- Operant conditioning holds that we respond to or not respond to certain stimuli because our responses are followed by desirable or aversive consequences. How many of your own behaviors can you explain in this fashion? (Snowman, McCown, p. 150)
Coryna- In the Examples of Behaviorism Activity section of our coursework, there is a video featuring a teacher named Mr. Kip. He used different strategies within the video to elicit a response from the students in a certain way. For example, he said, "Check," and the students responded, "Check Back." He would also call specific students by first name if they were off task or give a "teacher stare." Before students began an activity, he made sure to make clear expectations for the students to follow as they were about to begin to work independently.
Questions:
Create as many stickies for questions as you need. Feel free to add images, video, links, etc. Be sure to give proper attribution (APA style) for your sources.
Contingency contracting may be a more ethical use of behavior modification in that it is an explicit agreement between two cognizant parties, almost like a fair exchange. "if you do this for me, I'll do this for you."

Teachers should use behavior modification in ways that are best for the student. Do these methods promote positive habits or modes of behavior in students, or do they just serve as a quick-fix or convenience for the teacher?

Joanne
We know that behaviorism is incomplete in that it doesn't take into account the cognitive and social processes that contribute to behavior. What are some of the dangers or risks involved in using behavior modification? How might it affect students in ways we can't immediately detect?
When we use these methods we're not seeing the whole picture of how they affect the student emotionally, socially, and long-term. Are we conditioning feelings, values, motivations as well as behaviors? For instance, the Snowman (2013) text indicates that the use of token economies and response cost are effective methods of discouraging disruptive behavior (p.158); however, how might it affect a student to see that he consistently earns fewer checkmarks than his classmates? How might he feel about his worth in the classroom?


Mr. Kipp has, as aforementioned, trained his students to respond in an expected manner when he says, "Check." He calls out Manny near the beginning of the reading exercise, seemingly to get him on the task of listening to the instructions. In the context of operant conditioning, calling out Manny's name is the stimulus, to which the expected response is for Manny to be attentive. The reinforcing stimulus may be simply not having that attention on him any longer once he reaches the target behavior. Mr. Kipp models behavior clearly and explicitly identifies his exact expectations for the IYOWT. This is one of the identified behaviorist instructional strategies; if the students are aware of what is expected of them, they are much more likely to perform that or close to that expectation. While modeling the terminal behavior, Kipp says, "Thumbs up if you see what I just did." This physical manifestation of attentiveness and responsiveness, and then Mr. Kipp's subsequent response to the thumbs, demonstrate examples of feedback, not only from the instructor, but also towards the instructor. -Kira
ASSESSMENT
Assessment for piano lesson must be a performance assessment, specifically, a demonstration of ability to perform the task of playing the C scale in the way specified. Performance assessments, emphasize a student's "active responding" or way of showing whether she can apply prior and new knowledge to play something correctly (Snowman, 2013, p. 314). -Kira
3 ways to evaluate student learning according to Snowman (2013)
norm-referenced - assess against other students (p. 319)
criterion-referenced - assess against critera/standard (p. 322)
ipsative (not mentioned in text) - assess against self
-Kira
Educational Applications
Be clear about what is to be taught
Teach first things first
Present subsequent material in small, logical steps
Allow students to learn at their own rate (Snowman, 2013, p.154)
Snowman (2013) talks about how behavior modification shapes behavior by ignoring the undesirable responses and reinforcing desirable responses (p.157).

To what extent do we "ignore" the undesirable responses. Is there every a point when giving instruction where there is a conversation with the student about why the behavior is not acceptable in the classroom? Or is that not effective?
Erica ovtr:
THE BEHAVIOR WOULD BE TO IDENTIFY OR NAME THE ANTECEDENTS TO THE PRONOUNS IN THE QUESTIONS GIVEN, as well as defining what an antecedent and pronoun is which requires memorization.
All of the examples of behaviorism that are exhibited in the video with Mr. Kip seem to be very effective. The students respond to the strategies in a positive way and seem to be engaged and willing to stay on task. Even when they were turning and talking, Mr. Kipp made sure they were eye to eye and knee to knee on the carpet. It promotes great classroom climate.
Joanne
Some aspects of behavioral learning theory may be useful in the lesson, for instance setting clear expectations for the student and the behavior the student will be expected to produce to demonstrate learning. The instructor can indicate to the student at the beginning of the lesson that she will be expected to create a paper airplane at the end of the lesson and be able to complete 3/4 of the steps on her own.
Joanne:
How can we induce disequilibrium and allow students to reach a sense of understanding or meaning on their own when the task they are learning is fairly simple, or just a matter of memorizing a few physical steps? How do you act as a "guide on the side" for these kinds of learning experiences? Is this approach only appropriate for some activities or certain parts of a lesson?
n Snowman and McCown's Suggestions for Teaching for Applying Piaget (2013), they claim, "Because individuals differ in their rates of intellectual growth, [instructors should] gear instructional materials and activities to each student's developmental level" (p. 32). How would this be possible in a traditional classroom? Designing around each individual seems impossible in a 30-student classroom, and I would not even know where to begin... -Kira
Relationship between social interaction and cognitive development - Peer interactions are much more powerful than adult ones because the outcome of interaction with a peer depends more on how well the child uses his/her intellect than outcome of interaction with an adult (Snowman & McCown, 2013, p. 29). -Kira
Joanne
A
main assumption
of Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory is that
human beings are constantly in the process of constructing meaning, pattern, and knowledge through interaction with their environments
. The construction of knowledge is an ongoing process of formation and reformation as the mind comes into contact with unfamiliar ideas and works to adapt itself to reach equilibrium (Snowman, 2013, p. 24-25).
Formal operational
(middle - high school) - "generalize from a particular instance to a general form" (Snowman & McCown, 2013, p. 27)
-Use of
reason
is much more pronounced in this stage than any other cognitive developmental stage
-Not dependent on prior concrete experiences to apply knowledge
-Kira
When constructing new knowledge:
Students are active participants in their learning
Hands on experiences to construct their own knowledge
Teacher is the guide on the side
Ask open ended questions understand the students thinking process
Never gives direct answers - allows students to configure it on their own
Preoperational Stage
(Ages 2-6)
key developmental task is understanding symbols and their functions within symbol systems (literacy)
not yet able to think logically
obstacles to logical thinking:
conservation problems
- difficulty understanding that some properties of matter do not change despite differences in appearance and position
perceptual centration
- tendency to focus on one aspect of object or problem at a time
irreversibility
- cannot logically reverse operations or events
egocentrism
- difficulty thinking or seeing from other perspectives (Snowman, 2013, p. 26-27)

kira, I would add that Piaget's stages are too broad to be of great use anyway. Vygotsky will give us more strategies that involving dialogue which is finer grained Dr A
Coryna - Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development:
Sensorimotor: Birth - 2 years
Preoperational- 2 - 7 years
Concrete operational- 7 - 11 years
Formal operational- 11 years - older
(Snowman 2013, p. 25)

Piano lesson
-the physical nature of a performance: student should be in concrete operational stage - experience the piano directly -Kira
joanne, yes most constructivist aproaches insist on problem solving, or inquiry types of lessons that are complex and more real world. Contrast with the behaviorist approach of skill and drill via worksheets Dr A
Coryna:
Equilibration- By which people achieve a kind of balance between how they experience the world and how they think about the world. (Snowman 2013, p. 24)

When people encounter something that is inconsistent with or contradicts what they already know or believe, this experience produces an imbalance, a disequilibrium that they are driven to eliminate. (Snowman 2013, p. 24)

Coryna- Application to video:
In the Word Wall video, there was a great example of using a less traditional experience while students were doing a writing activity. One instance that I can recall was when the paraeducator gave a leading prompt for the student to find "k." They both walked together to the word wall and the paraeducator asked, "Where can we start?" The student began to touch and recite each letter until arriving at the "k." The last question asked was, "How do you make that letter?" They practiced and the student returned to write the word, cat. She was never corrected and seemed very satisfied with her connection to her learning.
Good work! 5/5
Behaviorist would say that ignoring it is a form of punishment, and trying to reason as you suggest would not be behaviorist but cogntive

hopefully our week 4 discussion addressed your other questions 5/5
Good work here 5/5
yes, but even cogntive theories would look ot see waht behaviors evidecne learning- think about how you did or could use operatn conditioning 4/5
Can you be specific ? 4/5
Joanne
In order to promote meaningful learning, the instructor can encourage the student to find similarities between the steps she is being taught and the steps involved in her own process of making a paper airplane. This will allow her to connect new information to experience stored in long term memory, increasing the likelihood that the new information will be effectively encoded (Snowman, 2013, p.173). The teacher can also point out how the folded paper at different steps of the procedure creates shapes that resemble familiar objects, like an envelope or a bird, so the student can dually code each step verbally as well as visually (p.174).
Kira
In my job tutoring algebra, we have standardized learning objectives that change every single day, which does not coincide with how the literature treats objectives. How do teachers avoid the standardization of objectives while following the formula for objectives provided by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001)?
Joanne -
Constructing Knowledge
To encourage the student to construct knowledge using procedures and concepts she is already familiar with, the instructor can show the student the completed airplane (the one produced by the method to be taught) at the start of the lesson and ask the student to try to figure out how to fold her paper to make this version of a paper airplane. This will induce disequilibrium, allowing the student to draw on her own how-to-make-an-airplane scheme, altering and adding steps to it in the process of her experimentation. This will allow the student to learn on her own a few or perhaps even all the steps before instruction occurs.

Joanne
The coursework videos indicate that stages of Cognitive Development map the progression of thinking from
concrete --> abstract.
infants
experience the world through sensory information
teens and adults
can reason through abstract concepts
However, Snowman (2013) suggests that these stages should be thought of as
overlapping waves
rather than as a rigid, stair-step progression. Children may use more sophisticated thinking for certain tasks and may revert back to simpler thinking for others (p. 26).
Joanne
Snowman (2013) indicates that children from different cultures develop across the stages at different rates. For example, Mayan children have a low level of egocentration due to the importance of cooperative behavior in their culture (p. 27). How can we draw on students' cultural knowledge and experience to advance their development? How can we change the culture of a school or classroom so that they better support social aspects of cognitive development?



Simply discussing different cultures, customs, norms in a meaningful way that is grounded in the experience of students may encourage them to see certain situations from the perspectives of others, or at least to understand that others have different views and ways of thinking.

A classroom or school with a positive climate in which students are encouraged to consider others' feelings and discuss and respect others' opinions may reduce egocentrism and promote the development of a theory of mind. Snowman (2013) also suggests offering students many opportunities to interact socially with their peers and eliciting explanations from students regarding different conceptions of objects or situations (p.33). Cooperative group work in which each individual is responsible to his or her classmates may also help to break through egocentric thinking.



Joanne
The children in the video appear to be in the Preoperational stage of Cognitive Development. At this stage, children learn through concrete experience and activity rather than through abstract thinking, as discussed in the coursework videos. The child in the second video is physically acting out the cognitive process of selecting the correct spelling of a word from an array of other spellings for different words. Her act of in finding the correct spelling is grounded in concrete experience, physical activity and sensations - walking to the word wall, touching the letters, picking a popsicle stick and bringing it to her table, where she copies the word onto her paper. The cognitive steps and concepts are made overt and translated into concrete activity and objects so the student can better understand them.

The paraprofessional lets student think that "cat" starts with a "k," effectively allowing the student to categorize into a scheme: letters with a hard "k" sound start with "k." Physical manipulation allows for variable thought and tactile experience of new concepts: moving around the space, touching the word wall, etc. Construction of knowledge around the letter K: student does not know how to write a K, but knows where K is in the alphabet. By using prior knowledge, the student physically explores the word wall, touching and reciting each letter of the alphabet. The paraprofessional sees the student pass the letter, and takes her back, not to the letter K, but before the letter K, and guides in the right direction when she sees the student say "K." Again, the para is allowing the child to use contextualized information rather than isolated information. In the second video, the child uses manipulatives on the word wall to help herself learn. By grabbing and touching the words "me" and "and," the child is experiencing them physically, not merely theoretically, which is one of the prominent aspects of preoperational and operational stages (Snowman, 2013, p. 26-27). The paraprofessional also provides an apparently warm and nurturing learning environment, which Snowman (2013) provides as a method of optimizing Pre-K and Kindergarten learning (p. 52). -Kira
Snowman (2013) suggests that when introducing new info, the lessons should provoke interest and be moderately challenging to maximize assimilation and accomodation (p. 32). How do we ensure that the lesson/info is not too challenging and is adhering to all of the learners in the classroom?
Snowman (2013) also suggests to assess the level and typs of thinking of each child in the classroom (p.32). Is this realistic based on the number of students in the classroom and the amount of time needed to teach the lesson plans? Or is this something that is done while being infused with instruction?
The students exhibited behavior from the preoperational stage of development
Even though the child didn't identify the spelling of "cat" correctly, this confirms the notion that the students are limited in their ability to use their new symbol oriented schemes when learning new words (Snowman, 2013, p.26).
Snowman (2013) also emphasized that children that age have not mastered decentration which is the ability to think of more than one quality at a time and is unable to think of alternatives (p.26).
Even though the child in the video spelled the word "Kat", they were unable to make the connection between the K sound that the C makes to form cat as well.

Ideas for your OTVR:
Coryna
-
Constructing Knowledge-
Meaningful learning, then occurs when people create new ideas, or knowledge (rules and hypotheses that explain things), from existing information (for example, facts, concepts, and procedures). To solve a problem, we have to search our memory for information that can be used to fashion a solution. (Snowman, 2013, p. 25)
Erica:
The students I'm teaching are in the Formal Operational stage of development.
When having the students find the antecedents, they should be able to explain how the came to that answer.
This benefits me b/c I can understand their thinking behind finding the solution and ultimately whether they understand the process or not.
Erica OVTR Revision:
In my video, the behavior that evidenced learning was when the students came up to the board to answer a warm-up question and explained what the pronoun was and then the antecedent.
When the questions were answered correctly, they received praise which is a positive reinforcement
Coryna-
The teacher could have a model airplane already displayed and made, a video ready for preview, or a story about paper airplanes to activate students' prior knowledge.

Next, having a pre-made anchor chart with visual/written steps is helpful in guiding the students to where you would want them to end up at the end of the lesson, which is a paper airplane.
Coryna:
During the Unit Opener Video about Behaviorism, it mentions that the learning occurring is an observable change in behavior. Nothing that happened in the brain out of the sight of the educator is really relevant. If you show it, you know it. If you don't show it, then you don't know it. An example would be asking the students to memorize a few physical steps.


Coryna:
Criticisms of Piaget's Theory (Snowman, 2013, p. 30-31)
Underestimates children's abilities.
Overestimated the formal thinking capabilities of adolescents.
Vague explanations for cognitive growth.
Cultural differences

Vygotsky's Theory (Snowman, 2013, p. 32)
Often referred to as the sociocultural theory because it maintains how we think is a function of both social and cultural forces.


Meaningful
learning - when learner relates new info to prior knowledge and experience (Snowman & McCown, 2013, p. 175). - Kira
Maintenance rehearsal is a much less effective way to commit something to long-term memory than is elaboration rehearsal (Snowman & McCown, 2013, p. 171). -Kira
In Snowman & McCown (2013), they imply that there are different working memory capacities, i.e., "This finding does not...mean that students with a
smaller working memory
are doomed to be underperformers" (p. 170). I wonder if there are ways to enhance the capacity of a working memory or to ensure a child optimizes his/her working memory in youth, within the bounds of this theory. -Kira
Coryna- Ideas for your OTVR:
Factual Knowledge
for the knowledge of discrete, isolated "bits of information" and the term. For example, the students would be having peer to peer discussions about the estimate and exact amount of M&Ms needed to create the number 4.

Conceptual Knowledge
for more complex , organized forms. (Anderson, Krathwohl, 2001, p. 42)For instance, the students will sort as I read the story. Later on they will sort and write a number sentence for each color along with graphing the results to correspond with the first task. They will also discuss the most and the least towards the end of the lesson.
In the crickets video, the instructor activates prior knowledge throughout the lesson. She brings past experiences into lesson: what they went over at the beginning of the year, what they did yesterday. Bringing in prior knowledge is integral to IPT: it ensures solidification of knowledge much more effectively than mere maintenance rehearsal. She also makes it relevant to the students. By asking students what THEY want to know/discover about crickets, she makes the learning more meaningful, and therefore, more likely to be recollected with ease. -Kira
Coryna
-
Application to video: The instructor from the video accessed prior knowledge with the students, which will be useful later as they study crickets since the information will become linked together, which is easier for access to information about crickets. The teacher did this by hepling to build the students concept of "
cricketness
"
(Conceptual Knowledge).

Kira
Much of rehearsing for piano is based on muscle memory. Drilling and drilling is how most instructors tend to emphasize how a student should be learning either pieces or things like scales. In the original video, the instructor emphasizes a specific type of rehearsal, maintenance rehearsal. Maintenance rehearsal is defined by Snowman & McCown (2013) as a "rather mechanical process that uses mental and verbal repetition to hold information in short-term memory for some immediate purpose" (p. 170). However, this is an ineffective method for committing new knowledge to long-term memory. A more effective way of influencing a student to learn something like this is to contextualize it. Perhaps, it might be more well-internalized by the student if she were asked to sing words while playing the scale that communicate how the fingers are supposed to move. "The rabbit goes under the big tree trunk" is the first thing that comes to mind. When you sing the word "under," that is when the student should tuck her thumb under.
Information is processed in three stages or memory stores:
Sensory Register
- the primary memory store that holds information gathered by the senses
holds info for about 1 to 3 seconds.
has unlimited capacity
encodes stimuli as raw sensory data
Working Memory
- the second memory store that actively manipulates information
holds info for about 20 seconds
can retain up to 5 (give or take 2) bits of information at a time
allows for multiple simultaneous processes through 3 different channels - visual, auditory, time
Long Term Memory
- the third memory store that permanently records everything individual has learned
holds information permanently
has unlimited capacity
organizes information in
schemata
- abstract information structures (Snowman, 2013, p.168-175)

Short Term Memory (Working Memory):
holds 5-9 bits of information for 5-20 seconds
info can get lost by distractions
rehearsal is helpful to hold info but will be forgotten later
limited in capacity
Coryna- The term metacognition has been used in many different ways , but an important general distinction concerns two aspects of metacogition: (1) knowledge about cognition and (2) control, monitoring, and regulations of cognitive processes. The latter is called metacognitive control and regulation as well as more generally, self-regulation. (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001, p.43)
Erica -
To promote meaningful learning with grammar, it is important to organize the information into meaningful chunks which was done in a lesson prior to the video and in the video lesson as well. The info was first chunked into what pronouns are, then what antecedents are, then how to find the antecedent of the pronoun
Practice/Repetition is important as well to be able to practice the process of finding the antecedent and rehearsaing with various types of questions which was done in the warm-up questions
Another option could be rehearsing in a different format. Instead of just listing question the students a short passage from a familiar novel to and allow them to recognize antecedents in that form as well. That may make it more meaningul for the students.
Encoding is assisted with:
Practice/Rehearsal
- maintenance rehearsal involves repeating new material mentally and verbally to retain it in short term memory
example:
repeating a phone number over and over (867-5309)
least effective method
Organization
- organizing material into chunks or groups as well as meaningful or usable forms allows for easier learning
example:
mnemonic devices - ROY G BIV
Elaboration
- elaborative rehearsal connects new information to knowledge stored in LTM, enriching and clarifying new info with details, visual images, and analogies (Snowman, 2013, p.170-172)
example:
relating themes of a novel to life experiences
Coryna- Questions: Professor Austin put it simply for information presented to students, by asking them, "What do you see?"

Coryna- Questions:
Do you think positive attributes of operant conditioning balance out possible negative aspects? (Snowman, 2013, p. 157)

The students use the questions and variables they've created to explore new and past material, forming connections across long-term and working memory. The instructor in effect forces meaningful learning by embedding the process (connecting new info to stored info) in the steps of the activity itself.
Good work with Main Ideas 5/5
5/5
Good but what concepts from Piaget can you include?
Good connectin of theory concepts to examples
God connectin from video to examples here too
Nice
remember all this is group and not indiviidual so no need to put names here, combined score 5/5
This is good and also an example of metacognition 5/5
yes but how can you make patterns or nos concrete- liek placing note names on keys 5/5
Coryna, but what does this have to do with your OTVR?
3/5
Good 5/5
Erica - Since visual imagery is easier to recall than abstractions, would it benefit the teacher to always have some form of imagery for each lesson or should it be moreso on an as needed basis?
In my opinion, it depends on the teacher's use of operant condidtions, the behaviors they are trying to change and what types of reinforcements are being used. Based on the situation the positive can outweigh the negative or vice versa.
In the video, the teacher
organizes the info, model the info/activivty and allow the students to rehearse the info through developing the problem/question for the project, allowing them to refer back to previous knowledge. I agree with Kira that the teacher made the learning more meaningful b/c she allowed the students to developed problems based on what interested them vs. just a problem the teacher created herself.

For instance, the students must use their prior knowledge of color recognition to construct new knowledge about how to sort the M&Ms contained in their Ziploc bags and write how many there are of each color onto a recording sheet. They then use the new information to graph their results.
Coryna- Application to video: "Piaget assumed that human beings are born with the tendencies to organize and adapt.

Organization- The human tendency to systematize, to pull together a variety of information into an overall system.

Adaptation- The human tendency to make adjustments t our environments." (Snowman, 2013 p.23)
4 key frames of constructivism: informed by...
1. prior knowledge
2. multiple perspectives
3. self-regulation
4. authentic learning
(Snowman & McCown, 2013, p. 212). -Kira
Construction of knowledge happens 3 ways
1. cognitive - within individual
2. social - tools of culture contribute to shared understanding
3. critical - seeks to understand why learners from certain social/cultural groups learn more easily in school setting
(Snowman & McCown, 2013, p. 214-216). -Kira

Conditions that foster constructivist learning practices:
cognitive apprenticeship
- teacher makes use of scaffolding techniques to model cognitive processes and gradually releases responsibility for these skills to students as they gain competence
situated learning
- student are given learning tasks in which they solve meaningful problems in realistic contexts
multiple perspectives
- since problems are mutli-faceted, eachers and students make use of "a network of interrelated ideas" formed by experts in various fields (Snowman, 2013, p. 215-16)
Joanne
"
The pipe is more important than the content within the pipe.
" (Siemens, 2004)

= our ability to make connections between different kinds of information and make decisions based on this information is more important than the information itself
If differences in culture are composed of ethnicity and social class, and constructing knowledge and learning optimally depends on communication patterns, how can an instructor ensure she is accounting for all of these differences effectively? -Kira
It seems like figuring out how to navigate constructing meaningful knowledge alongside adhering to common core standards and standardized testing craze would prove extremely challenging. -Kira
Transfer
Teaching students to transfer learning, or to apply skills and knowledge learned in the classroom to new situations, is a crucial goal of instruction.
Guidelines - how to teach for transfer
1
. Give students multiple and varied opportunities to practice skills and relate concepts
2
. Provide problems resembling real-life situations with real-life conditions for students to solve.
3
. Instruct students to develop general strategies or schemes they can draw on to solve similar problems in other situations.
4
. Provide cues to facilitate the retrieval of past learning.
5
. Encourage metacognition by demonstrating the utility of strategies to solving problems (Snowman, 2013, p.231).
According to Snowman (2013), problem solving is defined as "the identification and application of knowledge and skills that result in goal attainment (p.217)

Constructivist conception of learning:
Like an icicle that grows as new water freezes onto it, our schema or knowledge structures grow over time as we add new info to prior knowledge.
= Knowledge construction is ongoing and constantly builds on knowledge we already possess.

Limitations of Constructivist practices
use of detailed or scripted lesson plans is difficult, as teachers must respond to what students do and what guidance they need in the moment
more time consuming and more demanding for learners
do not teach to high-stakes tests
teachers must strike a balance between "helping students demonstrate what they know" and helping them develop higher order creative and thinking skills (Snowman, 2013, p. 216)

Creative thinking is applied when the students came up with their own scientific question: What types of environments can the crickets could survive in whether hot or cold.
Snowman (2013) indicates that a limitation of Constructivist methods may be that they require teachers to be flexible with their lesson plans, and to modify the course of activities based on student responses and new information produced by the class (p. 216). This seems like it would be difficult for new teachers who may not be comfortable guiding the students in directions or courses of study they haven't prepared to explore. What are some tips for new teachers wanting to use constructivist practices?

Piano lesson - one must construct knowledge on what she already knows aurally. Original lesson assumes no prior knowledge, and focuses only on replicating behavior, ignores what student might already know regarding sonority. New lesson would be strengthened by exploring different examples of what "sounds right" or not. -Kira
I see that these two students are sharing their ideas and bouncing thoughts off of one another to create an experiment that proposes a question that is rooted in their shared network of knowledge on the subject.. The students are communicating about a possible experiment design, and when faced with a challenge posed by the scope of time or availability of materials, the students discuss ways to surpass that challenge. They both used prior knowledge to inform their decision about the way they designed their experiment. By incorporating prior knowledge, one another's perspectives, and the awareness of the materials at hand, the students are contributing to their shared knowledge. Ultimately, the conclusion of the experiment will also contribute to their shared knowledge because they are jointly constructing a way to make a new discovery about crickets.
-Kira
In class we discussed creativity as providing structured freedom. The instructor in the video provides students with just such an opportunity to create while also adhering to clear guidelines that shape and structure their efforts. She asks students to brainstorm 20 questions regarding crickets, setting a goal for the number of products they are to generate and dictating what topic the questions should address.
cognitive process - CREATING
"students must draw upon elements from many sources and put them together into a novel structure or pattern (Anderson Krathwohl, 2001, p. 85)

Subprocesses:
generating
- (hypothesizing) coming up with alternative hypotheses based on criteria
planning
- (designing) creating a procedure for accomplishing a task
producing
(constructing) inventing a product (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 68)
Emphasis on link between individual and organizational learning
Considerations:
-impact of technology
-distributed knowledge
-decision-making as a learning process
-learning community (node) - everyone is a peer
Kira
Is research and evidence on connectivism informed primarily by interrelations in collectivist societies, rather than individualist societies? How relevant, really, is connectivism to an individualist society? - Kira
Creative Thinking
being able to come up with new or original ideas that have value to a culture or society
two types
convergent
- transform variety of ideas into something new
divergent
- expand an idea into many new ideas
In classroom
teachers should provide freedom with structure, resources and constraints
example
- brainstorming
you have 5 minutes to think of 5 kinds of cars that start the letter "p"
Joanne
The instructor can engage the student in metacognitive thinking in order to encourage her to reflect on her own learning. After going through the steps of making an airplane, the instructor can ask the student to rate on a scale from 0 to 5 how well the student understands the steps. The instructor can also ask the student to estimate a percentage of the steps she would be able to recall. By evaluating her own learning, the student can then adjust her efforts and the instructor can offer more or less support in the next activities to accomodate the student's learning progress.

The students are also enacting step 2 of the problem solving process outlined in the Snowman (2013) text. Step 2 involves understanding the nature of a problem and creating a representation of it. The instructor asks the students to take their variable and write it in the form of a question. Students are framing their problems by choosing which variable or elements are most important and "activat[ing] relevant schemes" to determine how these variables may relate to other concepts they have studied (p. 222).
Joanne
Step 1 of the problem-solving approach outlined in Snowman (2013) is to "realize that a problem exists." Students who are spoon-fed fully defined, well-structured problems often lack the capacity not only to represent but also to discern the existence of problems - flaws, shortcomings - for themselves (p.222). How can we teach this skill? If we plan a lesson in which students must solve a problem, it isn't very practical or time-efficient to wait for them to sense that a problem exists. Should we focus on teaching this skill separately?
Metacognitive knowledge
knowledge about cognition in general + awareness about cognition (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 55)
Includes:
strategic knowledge - knowing strategies for learning and problem solving
knowledge of cognitive tasks (e.g. contextual and conditional knowledge)
self-knowledge - knows one's strengths and weaknesses
(Andersen & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 55-60)
Kira
You have to ensure you know what students already know in order to connect new knowledge to prior knowledge, but how do you navigate it when the foundational knowledge is really intermittent?
Kira
To create - put elements together to for a functional whole (Andersen & Krathwohl, 2001, p. 68). The students in the crickets video were designing a procedure to demonstrate how crickets would respond to temperature differences.
Kira
Knowing that rehearsal is a way to retain information, and it is integral to the physical practice of performing a piano piece. Ask the student, what do you think would be the best way to become more skilled at this ability? The instructor expects the student to be thoughtful about how she could optimize her performance.
Address prior knowledge with a probe. Play a major scale and minor scale, and ask which one sounds "happier." This will assess aural skills, and explain that major is the "happy" one, and minor is the "sad" one. Then ask student what her favorite song is. Assess whether that would be major or minor, based on how it sounds. -Kira
Kira: Link between individual and organizational learning
Considers:
impact of technology, esp. Internet
distributed knowledge
decision-making as learning process
learning community (nodes)
Learning is a social process, and everyone's experiences inform a collective knowledge
Students often respond to youtube videos. It may be effective to incorporate videos that use the scale I attempt to teach. Something that would add to the connectivist side of the lesson: playing the scale alongside others who are also learning it, finding an accompanying melody, or having small-group discussion about what the scale should sound like, and how to know if it does not sound right. - Kira
In the crickets example, the two students coming up with ideas for their experiment are utilizing their collective knowledge to inform their contributions. This seems more like social constructivism, but it still relates to the prominent connectivist idea that learning happens through connections. -Kira
CONNECTIVISM
All about:
A possible
global objective
that seems to be very important to this instructor is that students recognize that each of them has the capacity to make significant intellectual contributions to issues in their schools, communities, and future fields. Instilling this confidence in his students may be one of the broad goals towards which his educational objectives are building
Is research on connectivism mostly informed by collectivist societies, and how can it really have validity in an individualist society? -Kira
Joanne
The instructor can encourage the student to be an active agent in her own learning by developing self-regulatory skills and engaging her prior knowledge in the task at hand. The instructor can ask the student if she has had experience making paper cranes, stars, fortune tellers, etc. What methods helped her to remember the steps? How many times did she have to practice to get them right? The student can use this information to shape and direct her learning as the lesson progresses.
Joanne
Learning Process is Cyclical
learners connect to network to share and find new info
learners modify their own knowledge through contact with new learning
learners then connect to a network to share this new knowledge and find new info again (Kop & Hill)
Coryna-Transfer
"Specific and General Transfer- It is tough to distinguish the difference from one task to another due to specific similarities or to more general similarities.

Near Transfer- Situations in which knowledge domains are highly similar.

Far Transfer- When the knowledge domains and settings are judged to be dissimilar and the time b/n the original learning and transfer is relatively long.

Low-Road Transfer- A situation in which a previously learned skill or idea is almost retrieved automatically from memory.

High-Road Transfer- The ways people transfer prior knowledge and skills over longer time periods to new situations." (Snowman, 2013, p. 228-230)
Coryna
How would rate the instruction you received in problem solving? What can you do to ensure that your students become good problem solvers? (Snowman, 2013, p. 228)
Coryna
I could ask the students to make an estimate about how many M&Ms it takes to make the number 4 as a warm-up and have them share their with partners. Next, I would have them share out. After, I would have the students go through the same process after they've counted to find the exact amount. I could also ask them to write a sentence on their whiteboards about which color was used the most and which color was used the least. I would also have them write another sentence about how they know this to be true. I would have them, "Chin it." This means to hold up their whiteboards so that I can view their thought processes.
Joanne
I'm curious about what connectivist theorists would make of individuals who are isolated from society or who have no access to learning communities and yet still acquire knowledge. An extreme example would be a man stranded on an island without human contact. He does not have access to learning communities or texts but may still learn how to perform certain tasks effectively, perhaps through his own prior knowledge, knowledge gained through observation and deduction, and processes of trial and error. He may still be making connections and detecting patterns, but not through a cycle of interaction with other human beings. Do connectivist ideas only apply to individuals embedded in human society?
Coryna-Main Ideas:
Constructivism- "holds that meaningful learning occurs when people actively try to make sense of the world-when they construct an interpretation of how and why things are-by filtering new ideas and experiences through existing knowledge structures." (Snowman, 2013, p. 211)

Coryna-Questions:
"Can you recall a class in which the instructor used constructivist techniques? What did the instructor do? How did you react?" (Snowman, 2013, p. 216)
Kop & Hill state that "[i]n connectivism, the starting point for learning occurs when knowledge is actuated through the process of a learner connecting to and feeding information into a learning community." This makes me think of the "if a tree falls in the forest..." scenario. Learning can only occur through interaction with other people? So knowledge we acquire that we don't shared is not learned? Just as behaviorism completely ignores cognitive processes, Connectivism also seems to want to ignore or deny meaning to the way learning occurs on an individual level.
Coryna-
The link provided is a sample step-by-step lesson about how to use a constructivist approach in defining vocabulary words from a text.

Coryna- Ideas for your OTVR: I can address my students' prior knowledge with the experiences they've had with M&Ms; for example, projects, using them as toppings, etc.

Coryna-

This is a great example of complex problem solving.
As a nervous planner, I would probably be tempted to plan several different types of activities as possible options depending on what directions students take, but I think this may not be practical to do for every class session. It would probably require quite a bit of experience and practice to be able to understand, for example, what should be said to students to best guide them or how to address multiple perspectives in a constructive way. I would have difficulty knowing how to do this on the fly.
Erica:
Scaffolding and connecting students prior knowledge is really important with this lesson. Making sure that the students can make the connection between the prior parts of speech and how they can connect that knowledge to pronouns and antecedents. This should be done with guiding questions and probing.
My 11th grade English teacher used this approach often. When we would do lesson on a certain piece of literature she would put us in groups and allow us to collaborate amoungst ourselves on certain prompting questions that she would give us. This allowed us to gain different perspectives on the literature.
Collaboration is a big theme in the crickets video. The students are working together to come up with a project idea
The teacher also implements prior knowledge and scaffolding
The emphasis on problem solving was also prevelant in this video, but instead of the teacher presenting the problem to the students, the students presented the problem on their own
The students are developing the knowledge through experience which is very significant in the constructivist approach
Connectivism views learning as:
resting in a diversity of opinions
a knowledge creation process
a process of seeking out information and filtering secondary and extra information
According to Siemens, the learner chooses what to learn and the meaning of the incoming information. So, in my opinion, I'm thinking that it is up to the learner to determing the validity and relevance of the information as they gain more and more information.
Erica:
I could incorporate a video on pronouns and antecedents to help bridge the connection between what the students already know in a more creative way and shows them how to apply that towards the practice questions.
Siemens talks about connectivism being the information flow within an organization and maintaining connections is significant is needed to facilitate learning.

I don't think that knowledge that we don't share isn't learned, but the learning process is more effective when there are other people to add input into what is trying to be learned.
Coryna- In the Connections and Networks video, it states that, "Networking and making connections is more important than just learning facts." We need to emphasize the importance of what we want our students to learn in this new area of education.
Coryna- Since knowledge can be made available at a students' fingertips, what will or how will we as educators teach what is truly important?
Coryna- Siemens (2004) writes, "Knowledge is growing exponentially. In many fields the life of knowledge is now measured in months and years."

Coryna- I connect with my group mates on the idea of a YouTube video that connects with students' prior knowledge about M&Ms. I could also create an anchor chart where I write a list of what they know about M&Ms as well.
Erica: In the Khan Academy and Math Engagement video, connectivism is used as a means for the students to construct knowledge on how to solve the math problems given. Connecting to the Khan software allowed the students to construct processes on their own on how to solve the problems through hints given in the program and asking a peer.

In this case, the students are modifying their knowledge through the hints they get from the Khan software and help from their peers to come to a final solution.
Good work here
I hope our discussion of constructvist pedagogy addressed these questions!
what do you mean by intermittent? You can increase encoding by elaboratin and organization which will make those concepts more easily retrieved in WM for knowledge construction
Great work!
connect this strategy to a complex cognitive process
Good!
but rehearsal is the weakest path....your question is most ralted to metacogntive processes
I see you r frist one as critical thinknig and your second as creative
Good
Good work with all here!
Good work
Fantastic ideas!!
I d onot see how this appis to your OTVR
Good these are elaboration techniqyues!
This is one way to check peeception and background knowledge, as is KWL and background Knowledge Probes
Maybe not, but we can design instructuion to make best use of limited WM capabilties by using audio and visual resources, chunking, organization, elaboration etc

"Self-belief does not necessarily ensure success but self-disbelief assuredly spawns failure." - Albert Bandura
In other words, not having high sense of self-efficacy is a detriment to the potential of success
Triadic reciprocity
Connection to prev. theories
both cognitive and behavior factors: cog.dev.theory & ipt
Behavior + environ.: behaviorism
Distinct from prev. theories:
cognitive aspect not incl. in behaviorsm
Piaget - cogn+env., excludes behavior (?)
bidirectional interaction
social factors accounted for
emotional factors accounted for
Observational Learning - Qualities of good modeling
1) Power
2) Prestige
3) Competency
4) trustworthiness
When considering the differences in cultural needs of students, and older students in particular (for example, in 516, we discussed how some cultures respond to direct instruction and even need that explicitness in their earning environments to most effectively learn), what are the best ways to account for that when teaching self-regulated learning?
Coryna- Application to video:
In class we were shown a crow video and how it relates to Triadic Reciprocal Causation where biological factors, behavior, and environment all overlap and interact with one another.

Personal Factors- crow is hungry, knowledge/memory of using sticks to get insects (cognitive), self-efficacy (emotion/belief)

Behavior- used stick to get insects (old behavior), made stick bend into a hook (new behavior)

Environment-bucket of food with handle in tube and a wire
Self-Efficacy
- "how capable or prepared we believe we are to handle particular kinds of tasks" (Snowman, 2013, p. 1880
Factors affecting Self-Efficacy
performance accomplishment
s - personal history of performance on a specific task
verbal persuasion
- encouragement from others
emotional arousal
- emotions before engaging in task
vicarious experience
- observation of success or failure of individuals like us (Snowman, 2013, p. 190)
Behaviors Affected by-Self Efficacy
selection processes
- way a person chooses goals and pursuits
cognitive processes
- whether individual uses high or low order thought processes or visualizes success or failure
motivational processes
- level of effort or persistence when facing challenges
affective processes
- whether individual feels positive or negative emotions when faced with challenging task (Snowman, 2013, p. 190-191)

Coryna- Questions:
Should the development of self-regulated learning skills be left to parents and out of school experiences, or should this be a primary goal of our education system? (Snowman, 2013, p.188)

Coryna- In the self-efficacy video, from the coursework, this week,
self-efficacy is one's own perception of the likelihood of success at a specific task, which is built on your own experiences and observations of others. It may be accurate, artificially high, or artificially low.

It is a key component of goal setting in the classroom.

High Self-Efficacy = choice of more challenging tasks

Low Self-Efficacy = choice of less challenging tasks
Coryna- In observational learning video, from the coursework, this week observational learning was defined as observing other people and learning from their behaviors. Power, prestige, competency, and trustworthiness all determine if we want to model our own behaviors after them.
How closely related are metacognition and self-regulation?
Coryna- The teacher can implement the process of ARRM introduced this evening.

Attention (watch me)- the teacher demonstrates how to sort and graph the M&Ms onto her own sorting and graphing sheet underneath the document camera.
Retention (remember what I did)- the teacher can ask the students to share with a peer what they need to do for this activity and then share out with the teacher.
Reproduction (do what I did)- the students use their own M&Ms to sort and graph idependently with the teacher being the guide on the side.
Motivation (you get a prize)- The students keep their bags of M&Ms as a snack to eat at recess.
Self-regulation and self-efficacy take students' perceptions of their own ability and their emotions regarding particular tasks into account, whereas Metacognition seems to treat students' ideas about their learning as knowledge or fact that isn't influenced by personal perception. If that's correct, would it mean that focusing on self-regulation is the more informed, holistic way of addressing students' learning habits and techniques?
Kira
Student's self-efficacy in lesson is not high. The instructor can aid this problem by emphasizing what successes the student has had already (during lesson). Remind student of accomplishments (strongest indicator of self-efficacy). Instructor's precise praise is also a method of persuading the student that she is able. Show student a video of a very young person successfully completing the task (vicarious experience).
Ask student to evaluate own performance, then form steps to take to improve or perfect: SRL practice, involves accurately self-assessing, reinforcing self, and making decisions about one's own performance
What would motivate a student most to successfully complete the C scale. Would it be intrinsic motivation of proving one's capability? Gateway to performing other, more complicated music? Satisfy the teacher's expectations? It depends on the student. How is motivation going to be visible?
Coca cola has an incredible marketing team. The video here demonstrates modeling quite clearly. The first person who pushes the button that says "push" is rewarded instantly with a Coke, and when an individual observes (Attention) this, he remembers (Retains), and Reproduces the action, with the expectation that he will receive a similar reward (Motivation).

Self Regulation: The ways in which we alter our behavior in order to achieve a goal in response to different forces without being prompted to do so.

Students can apply this to the classroom by:
knowing when to use certain learning techniques and when they work
use various techniques for learning information
estimating how much time it takes to complete task
analyzing learning tasks
Erica:
The students will really benefit from the ARRM model of observation for my video.
Attention: When going into the practice questions, I model for the the correct way to find the antecedent
Retention: I have the students relay the steps back to me to make sure they understand the process
Reproduction: Have the students do some practice questions to show their understand
Motivation: Giving them praise or maybe an external award like candy?? (Not sure that would be very beneficial for young adults)
In my opinion, self regulated learning skillls should be leanred at home as well as at school, but some students may not come to school haing already acquired those types of skills so then it becomes up to the educational system to teach that in order to improve the learning experience for the child.

Individual knowledge is derived from social knowledge and it is communicated from "experts" to "novices"
Learning comes from language: conversations with experts
Social constructivist (as opposed to individual constructivist, like Piaget)
Learning is completely affected by the cultural circumstance
Every academic performance is a product of social learning
Scaffolding differs from shaping - behavior is not shaped through rewards, rather scaffolding helps you get to the hard stuff
Modeling differs from apprenticeship in that the student is being helped by the expert along the way, and sooner or later that help is removed -KJO
Gradual release model:
I do
We do
You do, I watch/guide
You do independently

How does this model fit into a discussion of opinions and issues? -KJO
Zone of Proximal Development
"difference between what student can fo o his or her own and what he or she can accomplish with some assistance" (Snowman, 2013, p. 36)
too difficult = frustration, anxiety
too easy = boredom
students can do with the help of a more advanced partner/teacher what they could not do on their own
example
: magnet - aimed slightly ahead of what child is able to do and pulls them along toward more advanced tasks
In Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, he identifies social interaction as one of the primary causes of cognitive development (Snowman & McCown, 2013, p. 34). In Mr. Santos's classroom, social learning is heavily emphasized, as is communication with peers, and with the instructor. In Vygotsky's theory, he claims much of children's intellectual gains come from others whose intelligence is more advanced (apprenticeship). Students in Mr. Santos's classroom take advantage of learning from Mr. Santos and by their peers' examples. In addition, Mr. Santos emphasizes scaffolding. He lets them fail first, i.e, in the oil pail model, and from those failures, create a way to improve upon the previous product. By letting them create on their own, Mr. Santos has made an environment in which students are able to use their prior knowledge and experience to inform their creations. Each failure informs their next possible invention. This is a way Mr. Santos has created a learning environment in which students are in their zone of proximal development, and building on that with each attempt at the experiment. Not only are students' own failures informing their future attempts, but OTHERS' failures are just as important, capitalizing on the importance of social learning. With the jitterbug experiment, Mr. Santos makes the point that the reason he does this particular experiment is so students can share with each other, their friends, and their families. It is so they feel successful, he says. It emphasizes the importance of culture in the classroom. He knows how important it is for students to feel successful not only in their grades. By having a self-created artifact, Mr. Santos demonstrates that pride in one's own work is extremely important to a student's success and sense of self-worth in class and at home. -KJO


The social dimension of consciousness is primary in time and fact. The individual dimension of consciousness is derivative and secondary
” – Vygotsky

social knowledge comes first and informs individual knowledge
cognitive development occurs through interaction with social knowledge

Coryna- (In class the following was mentioned.)
Formative Assessment- Given during teaching where the teacher stops to test and later continues on with the unit.

Summative Assessment- It is given at the end of a unit focusing on the product.

Dynamic Assessment- Trying to assess the students Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Ex.: Riding a bike
Good work 5/5
Modeling (social cognitive) vs. Apprenticeship (sociocultural)

Modeling -
AARM (attention, retention, reproduction, motivation) process occur internally within individual student

Apprenticeship -
instructor and student share responsibility for task through scaffolding until student is ready to perform task independently
learning occurs through social relationship
Yes, but given that student always construct knowledge we have no choice! Though some teachers believe that they can jsut safe on the stage the entire curriculum- which is easier bot not effective
This is expert practice and you will develop multiple pathways as you teach, and learn when and where to employ them- it just takes a few years :)
5/5
Good 5/5
Coryna- (A scaffolding connection shared in class.)
Scaffolding: Mediating a student's learning as they share knowledge through social interaction.
http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/d7/ab/c5/d7abc53806d580034c5555bbf98f70dd.jpg
KJO: In the lesson redesign

The instructor and student should first have a productive conversation that introduces vocabulary about what a major scale is, which will aid in constructing knowledge about the more technical and abstract musical ideas that are involved in this lesson. Since this lesson is intended for a total novice, using conversation as an introductory tool is highly useful for the student's applying their own knowledge about music that has been learned throughout her life as a result of her culture, and combining that with the technical language (e.g., "major," "scale," letter names of certain notes, etc.). By making these connections, having a novice learn from an expert through evocative conversation, sociocultural theory is being executed. The student is constructing knowledge upon what she knows already through a social interaction with an expert on the topic.
The instructor should also be present when it comes to assessing what the student can do, so the instructor can remain within the zone of proximal development. If the student can differentiate between major and minor scales, that is a good start. If not, the instructor should be adaptable. Instruction should be centered around what a student is able to do with aid. Going beyond that zone of proximal development will surely result in frustration.
The instructor should make use of dynamic assessments which again requires presence and awareness of the student's current ability. For example, being able to differentiate between major and minor, playing three notes in a row, then five notes in a row.
Addrees by asking them about it or some other way?
give me one example of a guidin question 4/5
4/5
Good 5/5
Joanne
The procedure for making a paper airplane may not fall within the zone of proximal development for the student, as he is older and more cognitively developed than the original student. He is likely to find the procedure too easy, which may cause him to feel bored with the instruction. The instructor may have to find a different, more difficult procedure that is too challenging for the student to complete on his own without instruction. This new procedure will involve more complicated folding techniques and possibly more steps. A more challenging procedure will lie with the students' SPD, ensuring that the students' abilities can be extended through assistance from and interaction with the instructor.
It may be useful to assess how much airplane-making experience the student has before the lesson as well as dynamically assess the student during the lesson. Dynamic assessment will allow the teacher to adjust the amount of support the student receives so that he remains within his ZPD; for example, if the student seems comfortable with certain steps, the instructor can allow the student more independence as he completes these.
Coryna- In the video this week, the teacher, John Santos believed that all students have the potential to be successful in STEM based work. He strived to prepare them for college studies in engineering related fields. He begins his class by having the students say affirmations about viewing themselves as successful in a chosen field. In his class, he relies on giving the students real life scenarios where the students have a time limit to use the materials given to solve a real world problem. He makes a good point towards the end of the video by mentioning that in life, you have to figure out which is the best method to solve at hand. As a teacher, you need to take the time to look at things and think about how you can do something better since it has an influence as to where the students will end up in the job force.
A great question was asked in class relative to Dynamic Assessment. It was, "When do you let go? If they fail, what do you do?"

There is still no answer for this except to use your best judgement as an educator.
How do we adapt our teaching to students who come from different cultural ways of thinking? This seems like it would be possible in a classroom, but what happens when these students are taking standardized tests and are being assessed on how well they can apply ways of thinking that are valued in our culture? To prepare these students for standardized tests should we encourage them to alter or adapt their ways of thinking?
Coryna- Vygotsky believed that in early childhood, students learn spontaneous concepts or facts, concepts, rules as a by-product of other activities as in engaging in play an communicating with parents and playmates. (Snowman, 2013, p. 34)

Below is a video:
Our readings from 516 would say that we must explicitly teach these students the culture of power - its rules, its language, and how to function within it - so that they have the same opportunities for success as those more familiar with the culture of power. However, we must also acknowledge the arbitrariness of this culture's claims to power as well as validate and incorporate into instruction the non-mainstream funds of knowledge students bring to school. We should teach students to value as well as to think critically about the practices and beliefs of all groups of people.
Example of Sociocultureal Learning Theory





We have one word for a wave whereas Hawaiians have 24
Johnny the Hawaiian boy has learned all 24 words for wave through interaction with others within a culture that has a deep appreciation of the ocean
what individuals know comes from social knowledge and language
culture and society instill its values into the individuals within it - these values affect what we learn
Vygotsky goes on to say that schooling, should be directed to the learning or scientific concepts-- the psychological tools that allow us to manipulate our environment consciously and systematically. (Snowman, 2013, p. 35)
Coryna- Growth of Knowledge Video:
Piaget vs. Vygotsky
Erica: It may be more effective to apply the apprenticeship instead of modeling. It will give the students the opportunity to own their learning of pronouns and antecedents through social interaction with their peers as well. I can begin with a form of scaffolding as the students work on some problems on their own and get ther perspectives of their peers as well.

Scaffolding: Helps students answer difficult questions or solves problems by giving them hints or asking leading questions.

Maximize scaffolding efforts by:

1. Model desired academic behavior
2. Create dialogue with the student
3. Practice

Good with main ideas 5/5
Good 5/5
Nice example!
great 5/5
Great! 5/5
Nice work 5.5
Good 5/5
Good with Main ideas 5/5
What is the skill? To express opinions? To base opinions on evidence?
These are all skills that could follow the gradual release model, just like riding a bike .
Part of the answer is to know that students must move from funds of knowledge to academic knowledge - use techniques like discussion and collaboration so that students can move toward standards
5/5
Since no one succeeded do you think the task was above ZPD?
Good work here!
l love the work around internalization
5/5
How is scaffolding exemplified by students working on their own?
how will modeling and apprenticeship look different?
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Great 5/5
Think about classifying student from novice to expert in the course of dynamic assessment 5/5
Good 5/5
Motivation is the product of expectancy (expectations of achievement) and value (how useful or interesting it is)
I actually am working on the quadratic unit in the class I am teaching, and having a huge problem with motivation. I feel like I am really struggling to make the information
valuable
, especially when navigating the territory on what students need to know and in what form they need to know it for the district's and state's expectations, while also making it more relatable to students. - Kira
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