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# The Water Cycle

sciencists use models to help explain concepts
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on 13 June 2013

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#### Transcript of The Water Cycle

How does the 5th BIOS connect to the water cycle

The water cycle connects to this BIOS because scientists use models to help explain the water cycle. Since the water cycle is too big to see everything happen once, scientist use mathematical, physical, and mental models to help us explain the water cycle. These models allow us to visualize the water cycle better, and we are able to learn about all the steps of the water cycle. This is much easier than going underground to look at groundwater or flying up to the clouds. Without using models, it's would be almost impossible for most people to learn about the water cycle. That's how our BIOS connects to the water cycle.
Scientists use models to explain concepts.
Air mass is a large body of air that has the same temperature and humidity as below it (surface), this causes weather change.
-For example, the air over the equator, in a desert, is very hot and not humid at all.
- We did a lab on this, when we portrayed different types of surfaces and the temperature of the air masses above them.
Scientist use models to help explain concepts.
The Water Cycle
What Powers the Water Cycle?
The water cycle is powered by solar radiation from the sun.
This solar energy heats the water causing it to evaporate. ( Liquid changing into a gas). When the water evaporates it turns into water vapor.

-Evaporation is different from boiling because when something evaporates, the substance is getting heated from above, but when a substance boils, it's getting heated from below.
What is Transpiration?
-Plants give off water that gets evaporated
- Like evaporation, but occurring in a plant
- 10% of all water that evaporates
-Plants absorb water from the ground
-The water is carried through the plant
-The water is given off by the leaves
What is Condensation?
Condensation is a process where water vapor changes into liquid water:
- Water is evaporated (it changes into water vapor)
-Then the water vapor cools down (gives off it's heat)
- The cool water vapor condenses into water droplets
- The water droplets then aid in forming a cloud...
By: Olivia Goldberg, Jada Ali, Kayla Pagano, Jonathon Lawrence, and Jamie Pearlstein
What's the Water Cycle?
The water cycle is a closed system. No new variables are added. We drink the same water as the dinosaurs!
Each time water goes through to water cycle, it is purified.
97% of the earth's water is from sea water. This means the water cycle occurs in the ocean the most.
What is Precipitation?
What is rain shadow?
Precipitation is when water is released from clouds as rain (liquid). When clouds become too heavy the water falls to earth. The reason for this is gravity. Precipitation can be in many forms such as rain, hail, snow, freezing rain, and sleet. When it is snow or hail, this process is called deposition. It is not as common in the water cycle.
What is Latent Heating?
-Based on change of state
-Water evaporates
-Gives off heat to the atmosphere
-The atmosphere absorbs the heat
-The water turns back into a liquid
(Condensation)
You can reference this material on Exam 10-11.
Rain shadow is a dry area on a side of a mountain that doesn't receive any or little rain. This is because the other side of the mountain doesn't allow the rain cloud to cross over to the other side. Here's a model that demonstrates this.
What is infiltration?
Infiltration is when water seeps into the ground, until it reaches the aquifer.
-The aquifer is an unsaturated zone under the soil.
-In other words, it is a permeable body of rock that allows liquids to pass through.
-Groundwater and runoff is what gets infiltrated.
-The aquifer stores all the water that gets infiltrated.
-Also, snow and ice caps get infiltrated.
What is Air Mass?
This picture depicts how the air temperature can be different from the air surrounding it, and the same as the ground below it.
Ground water and Runoff
Groundwater is water beneath the earth's surface. The land absorbs the water.
Runoff water is the surface water on mountains that flow into rivers. Once in the river, that river flows into the ocean or a larger body of water.
CLOUD FORMATION
CLOUD FORMATION
What are models, and how do models help us with hard concepts.
Models are great for everyone because they help us wrap our head around hard concepts such as deep time and space. Three other reasons why models are helpful is: they are safer than the real thing, they cost less, and the real object may be too big or to small to observe. Without models, we wouldn't know nearly as much about the earth as we do now.
Cloud formation occurs when:
-water is evaporated and turns into water vapor,
-Some water vapor cools down and condenses,
-The water vapor condenses around dust particles,
-Together water vapor and dust particles form clouds.
The Types of Models
Mathematical Model
This model shows numerical data and can be programmed into a computor.
Mental Model
This model is 2-dimensional , it is on a flat surface.
Physical Model
This model is 3-dimensional so that you can interact with.
Clouds are made of condensed water droplets and ice.
.
You wouldn't see many clouds in the desert because there isn't much water to evaporate and form them.
Thank you for your undivided attention.
You have now learned the parts of the water cycle and how models help you to understand difficult concepts.
- Johnathan, Olivia, Jamie, Jada, and Kayla
Full transcript