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Automatic Railway Gate Control System

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Adhiraj Jhala

on 13 November 2013

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Transcript of Automatic Railway Gate Control System

Automatic Railway Gate Control System
Aim
The aim of this project is to Automate unmanned railway gate using mechatronics.
Introduction
Railways being the cheapest mode of transportation are preferred over all the other means .When we go through the daily newspapers we come across many railway accidents occurring at unmanned railway crossings. This is mainly due to the carelessness in manual operations or lack of workers. We, in this project has come up with a solution for the same. Using simple electronic components we have tried to automate the control of railway gates. As a train approaches the railway crossing from either side, the sensors placed at a certain distance from the gate detects the approaching train and accordingly controls the operation of the gate. Also an indicator light has been provided to alert the motorists about the approaching train.
For mechanical operation of the gates 1.8 step angle stepper motors are employed. Here we are using embedded controller built around the 8051 family (AT89C52) for the control .
The logic is produced by the program written in Embedded C language. The software program is written, by using the KEIL micro vision environment. The program written is then converted in HEX code after simulation and burned on to micro-controller .




Here we have taken a narrow scenario , that of the working of a railway gate system .
In India whenever a train approaches , a red signal is given to the key-man who then who then inserts the key and manually closes the railway gate . At the same time only the signal changes from green to orange and then to red that alerts the motorists of the approaching train .
After the train passes through , after a certain distance , the signal turn to green signalling the key-man to open the gates and then the road signals changes from red to green as the gates starts opening . But incase another train is coming after the first one , it may lead to some confusion too . such incidents may lead to railway accidents or maybe because of the carelessness in manual operations or lack of workers.
Conclusion

 Hence the Unmanned railway gates operate according to the data input from sensors to microcontroller. First an alarm is triggered and then the gate is operated.
Plus keeping in mind about the safety of the motorists
Objective
The objective of this project is to manage the control system of railway gate using the micro-controller. When train arrives at the sensing point alarm is triggered at the railway crossing point so that the people get intimation that gate is going to be closed. Then the control system activates and closes the gate on either side of the track. Once the
train crosses the other end control system automatically lifts the gate.





Existing System
Proposed System
Present project is designed using 8051 microcontroller to avoid railway accidents happening at unattended railway gates, if implemented in spirit. This project utilizes two powerful IR transmitters and two receivers; one pair of transmitter and receiver is fixed at up side (from where the train comes) at a level higher than a human being in exact alignment and similarly the other pair is fixed at down side of the train direction. Sensor activation time is so adjusted by calculating the time taken at a certain speed to cross at least one compartment of standard minimum size of the Indian railway. We have considered 5 seconds for this project. Sensors are fixed at 1km on both sides of the gate. We call the sensor along the train direction as ‘foreside sensor’ and the other as 'after side sensor’. When foreside receiver gets activated, the gate motor is turned on in one direction and the gate is closed and stays closed until the train crosses the gate and reaches aft side sensors. When aft side receiver gets activated motor turns in opposite
direction and gate opens and motor stops. Buzzer will immediately sound at the fore side
receiver activation and gate will close within few seconds, so giving time to drivers to clear
gate area in order to avoid trapping between the gates and stop sound after the train has
crossed.
About AT89C51
AT89C51 Microcontroller: The Micro controller (AT89C51) is a low power; high performance CMOS 8-bit micro controller with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM).

Features of AT89C51 :

· The AT89C51 provides the following standard features:
· Compatible with MCS-51 Products
· Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
· 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
· 128 bytes of Internal RAM (128 x 8-bit)
· 32 Programmable I/O Lines
· Two 16-bit Timer/Counters PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89C51
· Five vector two-level interrupt architecture
· A full duplex serial port
· Three-level Program Memory Lock
· Six Interrupt Sources

Stepper motors convert electrical energy into precise mechanical motion. These motors rotate a specific incremental distance per each step.
In motor terms, repeatability is the ability to return to a previously held position. A step motor can achieve the same target position, revolution after revolution.

Step Motor Advantages:
• Accuracy & Repeatability – Ability to position accurately.
• Responsiveness & Quick Acceleration – Step motors have low rotor inertia,
allowing them to get up to speed quickly. This makes step motors an excellent choice for
short, quick moves.
• Excellent torque for their size – Step motors have the highest torque per cubic
inch of any motor.
• Positioning Stability – Unlike other types of motors, step motors can be held
completely motionless in their stopped position.

Images of a Hybrid Stepper Motor








IR CIRCUITS:This circuit has two stages: a transmitter unit and a receiver unit. The transmitter unit consists of an infrared LED and its associated circuitry.
IR TRANSMITTER:The IR LED emitting infrared light is put on in the transmitting unit. To generate IR signal, 555 IC based astable multivibrator is used. Infrared LED is driven through transistor BC 548.
IR RECEIVER:The receiver unit consists of a sensor and its associated circuitry. In receiver section, the first part is a sensor, which detects IR pulses transmitted by IR-LED.
POWER SUPPLY:
To run the electronic gadget at home it is provided by some power supply. The microcontroller used (at89c51) requires 12v D.C supply.

For design of a regulated power supply components used are:
Transformer.
Diodes.
Rectifiers.
Regulated IC chips.


Keil development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support every level of software developer from the professional applications engineer to the student just learning about embedded software development. Keil development tools for the 8051 Microcontroller Architecture support every level of software developer from the professional applicat ions engineer to the student just learning about embedded software development

The Keil 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex problems facing embedded software developers.
Select the Toolset (only required for ARM Projects).
Create Project File and Select CPU.
Project Workspace - Books.
Create New Source Files.
Add Source Files to the Project.
Create File Groups.
Set Tool Options for Target Hardware.
Configure the CPU Startup Code.
Build Project and Generate Application Program Code.
Create a HEX File for PROM Programming.
Advantages :
It provides more security than other system.
From the remote place we can access the system

References:
• www.8052.com/tutorial.phtml
• 8051 microcontroller by Kenneth J. Ayala
• www.electronicsforu.com/electronicsforu/articles/hits.asp?id=1431
• Programming Embedded Systems: With C and GNU Development Tools
• Practical transistor circuit design and analysis By: GERALD E. WILLIAMS
• Sensor - Electronic circuit guide book – Volume – 1 By: JOSEPH J.CARR
• Programming and Customizing the 8051 Micro-controller By: Mike Prado
• The concepts and Features of Micro-controllers - By: Raj Kamala
• The 8051 Micro-controller Architecture, programming & Applications
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