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Learning at Different Ages

Young Learners, Adolescent, Adults
by

Robert Oliwa

on 10 November 2015

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Transcript of Learning at Different Ages

Learning

at Different Ages

Change activities frequently.
Combine learning and play.
Use appropriate activities (including songs, puzzles, games, art, physical movement, etc.) for different kinds of student.
Make the classroom an attractive, light and convenient learning environment.
Pay special attention to your own English pronunciation - children are good imitators!
Language acquisition refers to the process of natural assimilation, involving intuition and subconscious learning. It is the product of real interactions between people in environments of the target language and culture, where the learner is an active player. It is similar to the way children learn their native tongue, a process that produces functional skill in the spoken language without theoretical knowledge. It develops familiarity with the phonetic characteristics of the language as well as its structure and vocabulary, and is responsible for oral understanding, the capability for creative communication and for the identification of cultural values.
instructional SCAFFOLDING
make children interested in the task
break a big task down to smaller pieces
keep the children focused on the task
point out what what important parts if the task are
show the children other ways of doing the task (they are different remember?)
prepare the same activity for the 3 different age groups.
Young learners
Children need a lot of good exposure if they are to acquire a language. One or two hours a week is usually not enough for successful
ACQUISITION
, though it may a) give students a taste of the new language, b) make them feel very positive about languages other than their own and c) be a lot of fun.
Young Learners
Adolescent
Adults

Tips for Teaching
ACQUISITION
task:
Tips for teaching
Children take in information from everything around them, not just what is being taught. They learn from things they see, hear, touch and interact with. This is often just as important as more formal explanations.
Children are usually curious about the world and like learning.
Children often find abstract concepts (such as grammar rules) difficult to understand. However, this depends on what
DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE
they have reached.
Many children are happy to talk about themselves, and like learning experiences which involve and relate to their own lives.
Children are pleased to have the teacher's approval.
Children often find it difficult to concentrate on the same thing for a long time.
The Russian educational psychologist Vygotsky (1896-1934) said that children learn best when they are in the
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
(ZPD): when they are ready for the next bit of learning. Later experts have suggested that teachers should
scaffold
students' learning (provide guidance and support) until the students can do it for themselves.
We need to remember, however, that children develop at different rates and that there is a clear difference between a child of five, for example, and a child of ten.
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Adolescent
Depending on their stage of development, teenagers can start to think in abstract terms. In odier words, they can talk about ideas and concepts in a way that younger children probably cannot.
Many adolescent students become passionate about the things that interest them.
Many adolescent students have a large amount of energy. This is sometimes a good and creative thing, but sometimes, if we don't channel it correctly, it can lead to more or less serious DISCIPLINE problems.
Many adolescents are extremely conscious of their age and find it irritating when adults continue to teach them as children - even though, in many ways, they still are children.
•Adolescents usually have not chosen to come to our English lessons. They are there because they have to be there. They may not see any good reason for learning English.
Many adolescents want and need PEER APPROVAL (the good opinion of their classmates) far more than they want and need the approval of the teacher.
Encourage teenagers to have opinions and to think critically and questioningly about what they are learning.
Use the students' own knowledge and experience as much as possible.
Treat the students like adults but remember they are still children.
Encourage the students to have agency (take responsibility for their own learning).
Be super-organised! Teenagers like to know what they are doing and why.
Be consistent when there are discipline problems. Criticise the behaviour, not the student.
ADULTS
Adults can think in abstract ways and so there is, perhaps, less need for them to engage in activities such as games and songs in order to understand things.
•We can introduce a wide range of topics into adult classrooms and expect that the students will have some knowledge of what we are talking about.
•Many adult learners have strong opinions about how learning should take place, often based on their own schooldays. They sometimes dislike teaching methods that are either different from those they are used to or which remind them of earlier learning.
Although some adults have good memories of learning success, others have experience of learning failure and are worried that they will fail again.
Adults usually (but not always) behave well in class - at least better than some other age groups.
Many adults (but not all) understand what they want and wrhy they are learning. This means that even when they are a little bored, they can still keep working.
Find out what interests different student individuals in order to plan the most appropriate lessons.
Be prepared to explain things (such as grammar rules). But remember that many adults learn by doing things, too.
Discuss the best ways of learning with your students so that everyone is happy with your lessons.
Provide clear short-term goals so that the students can achieve success at each stage.
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Peer Approval or Peer acceptance is the degree to which a child or adolescent is socially accepted by peers. It includes the level of peer popularity and the ease with which a child or adolescent can initiate and maintain satisfactory peer relationships.
Teacher Knowledge
Jeremy Harmer
Full transcript