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Using examples, evaluate the relationship between economic d
Transcript of Using examples, evaluate the relationship between economic d
urbanisation. [10 marks]
At the most simple level the relationship is that economic development is usually greatest in areas where urbanisation is greatest.
The relationship between them has both positive and negative impacts, with the negatives a result of rapid urbanisation and economic development.
At a Global Scale
Most developed countries
Urbanisation is highest in these areas. The majority of the population live in urban areas.
UK, USA, Japan
Least developed countries
Urbanisation is much lowest in these areas. More people live in rural areas.
The areas are experiencing the urbanisation at the highest rates, and these are also the area where economic development is happening at the greatest rate.
China, India, Brazil
Within countries the relationship between economic development and urbanisation varies
In the most economically developed countries (UK, USA) the traditional relationship of high levels of economical development being strongly linked to urbanisation are showing signs of reverse.
Counterurbanisation - traditional economic development, and often the negatives it can bring (crime, congestion, pollution) have lead to trends to living outside urban areas.
This suggests the relationship is not always positive in both cases
St Ives, Urchfont
Positives of the relationship between economic development and urbanisation
Cummulative Causation - very strong relationship
Economic development ultimately creates job opportunities, encourages more people to move there, increases urbanisation.
People attracted as there is greater infrastructure, services, shops...ultimately the QofL improves for those residents.
This creates further employment opportunities, attracts further migration to the area, increases urbanisation as a result.
Negatives of the relationship between economic development and urbanisation
Negatives are most prominent in developing countries where the positive relationship between economic development and urbanisation is rapid in both cases.
Infrastructure and public services (education, housing, health care) cannot keep pace with the growing population
The economy development continues overall but there are not enough jobs for the ever increasing urban population
These negatives often impact most severely on the poor in-migrating population.
Slums are common features (Sao Paulo, Karachi, Lusaka)