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Islam: Early History

This presentation follows Islam from its origins in the Arabian desert to its early interactions with European governments and the Byzantines.

Raymond Beamon

on 13 December 2016

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Transcript of Islam: Early History

Islam: Introduction
The Arabian peninsula lies between North Africa and the Middle East.
People who lived in the Arabian peninsula included Arabs and Bedouins (nomadic herders)
Islam means "give oneself to god" or "to submit to god"
Islam - noun - a religion
Muslim - noun - a person who follows Islam
Islamic - adjective - describes something
It was founded by Muhammad, who was known as the Prophet of Allah (Arabic word for god)
Followers of Islam are called Muslims, and it's the world's second largest religion after Christianity.
Arab pilgrims (religious travelers)
made the city of Mecca rich.
They came to visit the Kaaba (Islam's holiest shrine)
Muhammad concluded that there was only one god, Allah, {who was the same person as the god of the Hebrews (YHWH) and the god of the Christians (God).}

Muslims believe that Abraham, Moses, & Jesus were prophets, but Muhammad is the final & best prophet

Jihad means “struggle to defend the faith”
Might mean meditation, might mean holy war
The Quran is the Muslim scriptures (holy book) is considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah.

The Five Pillars:
1. Shahada (Creed) - "There is no god but Allah, and Muhummad is his prophet."
2. Salah (Prayer) - Five times daily, facing Mecca (sunrise, noon, late afternoon, sunset, and evening.
3. Zakat (Charity) - 2.5% of annual savings
4. Sawn (Fast) - during the daylight hours of the holy month of Ramadan
Hajji (Pilgrimage) - go to Mecca (Hajj) once in a lifetime, walk around the Kaaba.
Muhammad died in 632
Islam Expands
Sunni thought a leader, or Caliph, should be chosen from the community
Shuni-Shi'a Split
Shi'ites thought it should be one of the Muhammad’s descendants
Mosques are Islamic places to worship
Full transcript