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Theory of Knowledge - Female Genital Mutilation

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Sabrina Luswala

on 11 November 2012

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Transcript of Theory of Knowledge - Female Genital Mutilation

How do we know whether Female Genital Mutilation is an issue of Cultural Relativism or Human Rights? Cultural Relativism (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr US! ME,
YOU and
EVERYONE Mom Ancestors (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Ah, Yes, Tradition. The finest way of making decisions in the world, even the dead get their say
-Anonymous Dad Is FGM explainable in terms of
cultural relativism or is FGM a violation of human rights? Areas of Knowledge Traditions
Customs
Religion
Generations History Human Sciences Human Rights
Moral & Legal principles Ethics Medical Ethics
Morals
Rationalism deep rooted traditional practice
practiced among migrant population
3mil. women and girls at risk
140mil. women undergone some type of FGM rooted in culture
practiced for religious reasons
not mentioned in the Qur'an
"LAW BY CUSTOM" Tradition Custom (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr RITUAL ongoing practice
girls in the leading generation still subjected to this practice
done behind closed doors
cultural paradigm shifts
"What is done to children, they will do to society"
- Karl Menninger If FGM can be explained in terms of cultural relativism, what are these explanations? practiced as a sign of aristrocracy
refer to real life situation
valued as a rite of passage to womanhood
prevention of STDs
pre-requisite to marriage
established control of sexual behaviour
prevent pregnancy and ensure virginity CULTURAL RELATIVISM misinterpretation that FGM improves moral behaviour of females by reducing their sexual desire
it's believed that FGM preserves any girl's chastity
supporters aren't aware that sexual desire is regulated by complex hormonal mechanism and directed to NS. HUMAN RIGHTS FGM: direct and obvious violation of human rights
women's right to maintain social role and normal sexual healthy life is hindered
Girls not protected = Human rights not respected FGM is based upon human rights, standards and health consequences
adults are free to submit themselves to this ritual whereas children undergo this mutilation without giving their consent
reactions of children can be compared to severe torture
are these forceful decisions on children ethically correct? Medical ethics - ethics into medicine and medical practices
medical professionals are confronted with ethical dilemmas when asked to perform FGM
society expects them to do it better than the non medical workers e.g village midwives (refer to real life situation)
FGM is a surgical procedure
medical skills and expertise needed to carry out this act
violation of principles of nonmaleficence
less skilled people may not be able to treat immediate complications Should the medical professionals
refuse to perform FGM? YES, these drills have to be stopped immediately. FGM is not a matter of personal values
but a basic universal and fundamental
ethical
principles Refusal of not performing this
action is however considered
as a very serious insult to cultural identity Consent
supporters are not aware that sexual arousal is regulated by complex hormonal mechanism
human behaviour is based on reasoning and the individual personal value system, not physical features If FGM can be explained in terms of violation of human rights, what are these explanations? Human rights treaties which are relevant to FGM are as follows:
Rights of Children
Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (prohibition of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment);
Article 2 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (gender equality);
Article 19(1) of the CRC (prohibition of all forms of mental and physical violence and maltreatment);
Article 24(1) of the CRC (right to the highest attainable standard of health);
Article 37(1) of the CRC (States must take effective and appropriate measures to abolish traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children) Conclusion :) this now brings us
towards the end of our prezie FGM is still a normal process
followed by many in the society
It holds paramount importance to society and we strongly respect this FGM has become a serious health problem
of public health concern.
There is no wise defense that could be made to preserve such a practice.
FGM violates vital human rights of bodily
integrity of the victim. Except for unquestionably curative therapeutic reasons,
any procedure made on the body is considered unethical. The drastic monstrous nature of FGM; irreversibility and lack of urgency without consent, or at least by parent consent make it an even more illegal action
WE BELIEVE THAT NEGATIVE TOWARDS PERFORMING FGM IS A POSTIVE MEANS TO BENEFIT FEMALES. it is not mutilation that saves... Cultural Relativism Human Rights V/S. Circumcision: doctors make money from it
thoughtless, ignorant, parents request it
and babies can't prevent it.
"Hairy Harry" Cultural Relativism Human Rights V/S. Circumcision: doctors make money from it
thoughtless, ignorant, parents request it
and babies can't prevent it.
"Hairy Harry" Cultural Relativism Human Rights V/S. "Circumcision is a solution
looking for a problem"
-Dr Edward Wallerstein Human Rights V/S. "Circumcision: doctors make money from it, thoughtless, ignorant, parents request it, and babies can't prevent it."
-Hairy Harry' Mona Cultural Relativism Human Rights (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr 'The body is not like a suit of clothes, to be hemmed and stitched
to the style of the time"
- Dr. Paul McHugh v/S FGM is also known as:
Ritual Genital Cutting of Female Minors
Female Circumcision
Female Genital Mutilation
Female Genital Cutting
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