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Israel-Palestinian Conflict

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by

Gary Heng

on 4 March 2011

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Transcript of Israel-Palestinian Conflict

Oslo Accords 1897 What?
Rise of zionism CAUSES EFFECTS Religious Differences The Old Testament Qu'ran vs. tanakh What? In the old Testament, Abraham made a pact with God. That the people who originally inhabited the area including the Philistines and Israel had a to inhabit that land GOD-GIVEN RIGHT But when Judaism and Islam formed : Islam Judaism Palestinians call the land Jews call the land PALESTINE ISRAEL What? Judaism believes that Islam is a false interpretation of their religion Islam believes that Judaism has flawed and false beliefs Tension between the two states Israel Palestine Conclusion Refusal to accept Israel as Jewish State Differences in religion : Felt threatened by existence of Israel Felt threatened by Palestinians Fear of invasion by various Arab states Led to violence between religions Refusal to accept each other Religious National External Intervention Refugee Problem Homeless Palestinians fled to other Arab states Behind Israel Other states lack land space to house them due to invasions Palestinians also wanted their homes back Behind Palestine Britain France U.S U.N. P
L
O alestine
iberation rganisation Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Invasions between the various states The Suez War Year: 1956 First Invasion of Israel Day: 15 May 1948 Attacker: Other Arab States Defender: Israel Arab States defeated Israel gained 21% more of Palestine's land Cause Arab states refusal to recognise
Israel's existence as a Jewish state Many Palestinians lost heir homes and property Effects Six Days War Yom Kippur War Attacker: Israel, with support from France and Britain Defender: Egypt Cause Britain and France upset of
Egypt's seizure of Suez Canal Adopted aggresive attitude Surrounded by Arab states HOSTILE Took every chance to attack neighbours Effects Israel occupied West Bank of Gaza and Snatched neighbouring territories
Year: 1973 Attacker: Egypt and Syria Defender: Israel, with support from USA Cause Egypt and Syria wanted the land that
Israel took during the Six Days War back (Sinai) Effects Israel defeated both countries and almost took Syria's Capital, Damascus Additional Info USA called for ceasefire before Israel took the capital due to fear of threats from the Soviet Union Attacker: Arab States
mainly Egypt & Syria Defender: Israel Year: 1967 Cause Arab states wanted to eradicate Israel once and for all Effects Formation of the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) Jordan lost agricultural land and tourist industry PLO and DOP Formation of PLO DEclaration of Principles Formed in 1964 Objectives: To prohibit the existence and activity of ZIONISM Aims: For Palestinians' right of return

Self-determination of Palestinians originally a guerrilla group now officially recognised as representative of Palestinians attacked Israel from surrounding states considered milestone for peace process between Israel and Palestine Israel Palestine recognised PLO as legitimate representative of Palestinians Allowed Palestinian self-rule in Gaza + West Bank Withdrew troops from abovementioned regions Recognised Israel's right to exist Current situation (PLO) Both agreed for : Economic cooperation Regional Development Significance: Worsened the Refugee problem Arab Palestinians in conquered lands evicted Before wars, people also hid in neighbouring Arab states Due to support from European Politicians Proposal to establish independent Jewish State by Theodore Herzl in Palestine
Palestine Colonial Trust and the Jewish National Trust aided homeless Jews in palestine Baron Edmund de Rothschild of Paris helped to purchase lands in Palestine to allow 50,000 Jews to settle Britain encouraged the Arab States to revolt against the Ottoman Empire
Establishment of Sykes-Picot Agreement 1917 The Balfour Declaration Sir Arthur Balfour, Britain Foreign Secretary, declares his support for creating a Jewish state in Palestine Arab Opposition The Arab States believed that the creation of a Jewish State in Arab lands wuld cause endless conflict The Jewish Homeland Establisment of
Civil Administration
Necessary Legislation for facilitating Jewish emigration and land ownership Terrorist Attacks The British Mandate Ottoman territories came under the mandate system
Continuous emigration of Jews from Europe to Palestine (22-27)


Problems Violent riots when Jewish Immigrants tried to prevent palestinians from celebrating a religious festival
Riot in front of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem (Palestinian resentment against Britain)
Violent clashes between Jewish Emigrants and Local Arab-Emigrants
Further Conflicts Fpr Armed rebellion under the leadership of Izzuddin Al-Qassam
Constitution of Arab Higher Committee to lead the resistance movement against Britain
Declaration of strike all over Palestine in 1936 Initiatives Repressive methods (failed)
Appointment of Royal Commission to inquire into the causes of insurgency
Concluded that the problem was caused by the creation of the Jewish Homeland
Another revolt broke out when Britain acted without consulting the Arab states 1917-1937 May 1948 Britain surrenders her mandate over the Palestine region to UN May 15 1948 Birth of Israel 1948 Arab-Israeli Wars Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Trans-Jordan, Iraq attacked Israel
Israel purchased many arms and won the war After the War Palestinians lost their homes and property
Israel gained 77.4% of the land in Palestine instead of the allocated 56.4%
Israel admitted into UN 1949 Suez War President Gemal Abdel Nationalised the Suez Canal Company, which hurt British economic and military interests.
Britain and France attacked Egypt
Israel joined in in attacking Aftermath Israel occupied the West Bank of Gaza and snatched away neighbouring territories
United States intervened to bring about a truce 1956 1967 Six Days War Israel shot down 500 enemy planes and killed 15000 Arab Soldiers while only losing 777 men.
Israeli's air force crippled Egyptian, Syrian and Iraqi air forces, while completely destroying Jordan's air force
Israel broke through Egyptian defences and cut off their escape, causing Egypt to surrender unconditionally
Israel conquered 26,476 square km of Arab Land, including East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gordan heights Yom Kippur War Egypt and Syria declared war on Israel on October 1973
Massive Casualties on both sides
United States intervened when Israel was about to be defeated
Israel fought back and almost conquered Syria's capital 1973 Law of Return Made every Jew that returned to Israel a Citizen Land Acquisition Law All land abandoned by Arabs in Israel will become the property of the new occupants
Passed on March 10, 1953
No compensation for fleeing Arabs
Encouraged the Jewish occupation of conquered Arab lands 1949-53 1979 Signing of Camp David Accords Terms (Palestinian Agreement) Israel has to establish an automonous self governing region in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Israel has to recognise the legitimate rights of the Palestine People
Israel has to withdraw troops from West Bank, Gaza Strip Terms (Egyptian-Israeli Agreements) Israel must withdrew all forces from the Sinai Peninsula
Israel must evacuate 4500 civilian inhabitants and restore the peninsula to Egypt
Israel must guarantee freedom of passageway through the Suuz Canal and other nearby waterways
Israel may not place a overwhelming number of armed forces on the Sinai Peninsula
Egypt must establish normal relations with Israel Events leading to war Egypt blockaded the Straits of Tiran and chased UN peackeepers out of Sinai
Egypt, Jordan and Syria became allies
Egypt was forewarned by USSR and USA not to launch the offensive
Egypt built fortified defences in Sinai
Egypt, Syria and Jordan massed 100,000,75000 and 55000 troops respectively along the Egyptian-Israeli border
Israel declared war on Jordan, Egypt and Syria. USSR and other Arab Nationsgreatly aided Syria and Egypt
USA aided Israel Palestinians realise they could not win by war Had terrorist attacks on Israelis from 1949 until now Munich Massacre 1972 Example: Killing of 11 Israeli atheletes and coaches during Munich Olympics Gaza war Direct Peace Negotiations Terrorist Attacks What? Arafat (then leader of PLO), recognised Israel's right to exist
Israel to cede controls of palestine territories for peace
Did it work? NO! Why?
Israel's Prime and Defence Minister, Yitzhak Rabin, was assassinated in a rally
Ehud Barak, the new Prime minister, failed to agree with Arafat 2000 Camp David Summit
2000 The Offer by Israel Palestinian Control of 95% of West Bank and Gaza Strip
Palestinian Sovereignty over East Jerusalem
Israel to gain control of 69 Israeli Settlements
Israel to temporarily rule areas with Israeli Settlements 3-week armed conflict
27 dec 2008-22 Jan 2009 Offer Rejected There was no reason given, and there was no counter proposal by the PLO
Arafat was blamed for causing the failure of Camp David Summit 2001-2007 Israeli response to Hamas "Operation Oil Stain" rocket fire Table Summit Israel presented a new proposal to palestines
Palestine accepted this as a basis for future agreements Road Map for Peace A failed agreement by the EU to try and solve Israel-Palestinian Problems Arab Peace Initiative Caused an estimated ~1300 Palestianian deaths and
10+ Israeli deaths A complete solution provided by the king of Saudi Arabia to Israel and Palestine to solve this conflict
Israel must withdraw its armies and engage in talks with the Arab League
Israelis both support and criticise the plan
All the Islamic countries would normalize relations with Israel if they accepted the initiative 1 Jan 2011 to NOW: Palestinian rocket and mortar attacks on Israel from Gaza Ultimate aim: achieving a "final status settlement"
two state solution 28 Jan 2011: 1 Palestinian shot and killed, 1 injured during confrontation with Israeli settlers in Saffa 27 Jan 2011: 1 Palestinian shot and killed near Iraq Burin, West Bank, during confrontation 11 killed in 2010 6 killed in 2009 2 killed in 2011 so far Israel for the jews and a State for the palestines Previously halted when Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu refused to extend the freeze for Israeli settlements in the West Bank. 1993 Obama's constant call for direct peace negotitaions won over Jordan and Egypt. The two governments then managed to persuade palestinian leadership to re-enter the talks talks are still continuing Thank You! Any questions? References http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/comparison_charts/islam_judaism_christianity.htm
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-causes-of-the-israeli-palestinian-conflict.htm
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-causes-of-the-israeli-palestinian-conflict.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_and_Judaism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel-Palestinian_conflict
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