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Tips and Trends in Service-Learning

This workshop explores service-learning pedagogies and current trends in academic learning, planning, community relationship building and reflective analysis activities.

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Transcript of Tips and Trends in Service-Learning

Tips & Trends in Service-Learning
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Community Partnerships
Working with a Community Partner
From “The Promise of Partnerships" by Jim Scheibel, Erin M. Bowley, Steven Jones which also includes information about the impacts on institutions, agencies, and communities developing University-Community service-learning partnerships.
Community Partnerships
Delegated partnerships – those with coordinators who focused exclusively on coordination and played no role in program participation – are likely to produce pre-defined outcomes, while undelegated partnerships are likely to produce co-defined outcomes (outcomes defined by, and tailored to the needs of, both partners).
Thus faculty play as key a role in community partnerships as they do in student learning.

Giles Jr., Dwight E., Dorado, Silvia, Welch, Theodora C. (2009). Delegation of Coordination and Outcomes in Cross-Sector Partnerships: The Case of Service Learning Partnerships in Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly Volume 38 Number 3.
Challenges of Partnering with a Community Organization
From “The Promise of Partnerships" by Jim Scheibel, Erin M. Bowley, Steven Jones which also includes information about the impacts on institutions, agencies, and communities developing University-Community service-learning partnerships.

*Although this is not mentioned in The Promise of Partnerships, my own experience shows that these power differentials can be both challenges and assets.
To develop real, strong multi-faceted partnerships (and avoid logistical nightmares), work with as few organizations as possible. Perhaps there’s one you’re already involved with?
Recommendations for Developing Community Partnerships

Connect your service-learning community partnerships and work to your scholarship and service.

Advocate for your community partner on campus. Connect your community partners with other faculty members as appropriate.

Bring community partners to class as part of pre-service analysis. Students should thank them for what they learned at the end.
Be honest about your and your class’s limitations.
What is Service-Learning?
According to AAC&U Liberal Education and America's Promise (LEAP), service-learning is a high impact practice that helps students achieve essential learning outcomes “for individuals and for a nation dependent on economic creativity and democratic vitality.”

Kuh, George D. (2008). High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter. AAC&U.
Goals for Students in Service-
Learning Courses May Include:
Students develop civic responsibility and plan for future involvement.
What Service-Learning is
Service-learning is not a site placement
Service-learning is not credit for service (or time). Service-learning
is an integrated text of an academic course that provides credit for
learning. So...we measure academic learning
Impact of Service-Learning on
College Faculty
Increased satisfaction with quality of student learning
Opportunities to publish and present in service-learning that may not be available in the disciplines. *
Kuh, George D. (2008). High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter. AAC&U.
Impact of Service-Learning on
College Students
Personal Outcomes
At a Glance: What We Know About the Effects of Service-Learning on College Students, Faculty, Institutions and Communities. Janet S. Eyler, Dwight E. Giles, Jr., Christine M. Stenson, and Charlene J. Gray.
Marullo, S. (1998). Bringing home diversity: A service-learning approach to teaching race and ethnic relations. Teaching Sociology, 26, 259-275.
Using Service-Learning to Educate for Diversity & Multicultural Competence
Service-learning is an effective tool for developing multicultural competence because it "offers a structure for community based learning, collaborative in intent [and] responsive to local needs.” Programs with shared control listen to and consider the perspectives of those who are "disenfranchised or marginalized in our society." In this way, service-learning is more than a means for those in power to serve the less fortunate, but rather provides students with a "multicultural education" whereby they begin to understand local issues from a different perspective.

From Boyle-Baise, M. (Ed.). (2002). Multicultural service learning: Educating teachers in diverse communities. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Using Service-Learning to Educate for Diversity & Multicultural Competence
From Mitchell, T.D. and Donahue, D.M. (2009). Paying Attention to the Reflections of Students of Color in Service-Learning in The Future of Service-Learning: New Solutions for Sustaining and Improving Practice, 172-190.
Why do Service-Learning
in STEM?
An education with a STEM focus is a vital step towards providing citizens with the needed skills and technological familiarity that will enable them to take part in the exciting economies of the future.
Service-learning can help bring the broadest array of students as possible into the modern workforce.
There is a concerted effort by our nation's educators to encourage STEM studies that will enable students to actively engage in the knowledge-economy and to give many more students STEM service-learning opportunities.
Educators are also seeking to promote STEM study by students, especially those from underrepresented groups, including minority, women, and disadvantaged students.
- National Service-Learning Clearinghouse 2010
Academic Impact of Service-Learning on
College Students -- Sustainability
Having a community to answer to at the end of the project motivated students to do careful work (Draper, 2004).
Civic Impact of Service-Learning on
College Students -- STEM
One study revealed that students in a service-learning course that focused on sustainability grew in their sense of environmental responsibility;
significantly increased their “level of concern” for 18 of the 20
environmental variables measured; and viewed community action as empowering.
- Eisendhut, et al., 2005
Students’ participation in the service-learning course increased their overall support for a variety of environmental issues (Eisendhut, et al., 2005).
Students found the service-learning experience valuable.
Students learned to be professional scientists and learned the value of the discipline (environmental chemistry) to community health. (Draper, 2004)
Tips and Trends
Publish and present what you learn about service-learning and your discipline through this process
Discuss what service-learning is and why
you’ve chosen to use it with your students
Explain service-learning in the syllabus and
tie to learning goals
Integrate analysis of the pedagogy into reflective analysis activities
Improving Society Through Youth Service
In fact, little evidence exists about the impact of youth service on the recipients or their broader communities.
Theory of the Act is that social problems can be addressed by enlisting volunteers.
(cc) photo by medhead on Flickr
In 2009 President Obama signed the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act which authorizes tripling the number of full-time federal civilian service positions to 250,000. Will cost $1.416 billion to implement.
Impact of Service-Learning on College
Political Engagement

“Students who came into the (political engagement)
courses already very interested in politics and those who
came in with very little political interest and experience
both showed significant gains on just about every
dimension, with larger and more consistent gains in the
group that started with little prior interest.”
“Two items showed no change in either of these groups
(of students) – political ideology and political party
The Place of Political Learning in College. Anne Colby. Spring/Summer 2008 Peer Review.
Tips and Trends
Political Engagement

•“it is possible to combine passionate concern and
commitment to openness to views different from one’s

The Place of Political Learning in College. Anne Colby. Spring/Summer 2008 Peer Review.
Service as Public Work
Encouragement of service as public work is one strategy higher education can use in fulfilling its civic mission to socialize society's future leaders.
Public work is not the only antidote to this state of affairs, but it is especially promising insofar as it can promote the kind of informed, committed, and participatory citizenship the nation needs.
Youniss, James (2011). Service, Public Work, & Respectful Public Citizens. Liberal Education, Vol. 97, No. 2.
Three Criteria for Academic Service-Learning

•Reciprocal and collaborative
Relevant & Meaningful Service in the community
Enhanced Academic Learning

•May also address other
learning goals such as
diversity education,
teamwork, leadership,
civic learning, etc.
Inspires lifetime of
Civic Engagement
• Is designed by faculty
(or in collaboration with
community partner) to
compel students to a
lifetime commitment
to their community, to
civic engagement and
democratic process.
Relevant & Meaningful Service in the community
Inspires lifetime of
Civic Engagement

From A Promising Connection: Increasing College Access and Success through Civic Engagement by Cathy Burack Christine M. Cress, Dwight E. Giles, Jr., Julie Elkins, Margaret Carnes Stevens
Visit service sites to assess their appropriateness to learning outcomes.
Service-learning is a pedagogy that utilizes community service projects within the context of an academic course. Academic service-learning distinguishes itself from internships and other credit-bearing community experiences in several ways. First, the community experience is a component of an academic course, used as a "text" for student learning. Second, service-learning projects are designed in partnership with community to meet an expressed community need. Third, a structured reflection activity is utilized to help students understand how their community experiences link with the academic and civic learning objectives of the course.
Co-Curricular Service
Relevant & Meaningful Service in the community
Public/Nonprofit Internship
Enhanced Acadmic Learning
Enhanced Academic Learning
with Civic
Inspires lifetime of
Civic Engagement
Relevant & Meaningful Service in the community
Enhanced Academic Learning
Inspires lifetime of
Civic Engagement
Public/Nonprofit Internship
Co-Curricular Service
with Civic
Community Engagement
The collaboration between higher education
institutions and their larger communities (local,
regional/state, national, global) for the mutually
beneficial exchange and production of knowledge
and resources in a context of partnership and
What is Community
Slightly adapted from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning definition and the CSU Chancellor’s Office definition.

The terms “citizenship” and “civic engagement” can be used in exclusive ways. For example, citizenship can mean a legal status conferred on some and withheld from others.
Civic Mission
However, for our purposes, “citizenship” means participation in political or community affairs, regardless of the participant’s legal status.
Therefore, our Civic Mission...
Includes being good institutional citizens that
serve communities in multiple ways; providing forums for free democratic dialogue; conducting research on democracy, civil society, and civic development; and educating students to be effective and responsible citizens.
Risk Management
“Q: Can faculty allow a student to randomly select their own site or allow students to complete their service in one or two sessions for service-learning placements?
A: No, the service-learning process should be laid out so that appropriate sites and schedules are selected that support the goals of the learning plan.”
—CSU Resource Guide for Managing Risk in Service Learning
The Center for Community Engagement (CCE) supports the creation of safe and fruitful service-learning experiences. Central to a good service-learning experience is good communication between the campus and community partner and clear expectations about what the students are supposed to do and learn.

This section looks at the value of “reflection,” also called
processing, critical analysis, and reflective critical analysis.
In the early days of service-learning, we believed that any community-based work was “good” for the community and for students.
Historical Challenges
We hoped that exposure to diverse communities would lead to inclusive behavior or that exposure to injustice would lead to critical thinking, values education, voting, etc.
We hoped students would love service so much, they would stay involved.
“The quantity and quality of reflection (is) consistently associated with academic learning outcomes: deeper understanding and application of subject matter...increased complexity of problem and solution analysis, and greater use of subject matter knowledge in analyzing a problem.”
Tools for Critical Analysis
The Practitioner's Guide to Reflection in Service-Learning: Student Voices and Reflections includes dozens of critical analysis activities broken down into student learning learning styles (reading, writing, doing, telling) and course learning goals.
Reflection in Service-Learning Part II, a video from St. Mary's College of California.
Facilitating Reflection Manual from University of Vermont -- http://www.uvm.edu/~dewey/reflection_manual/
Service-Learning: Using Structured Reflection to Enhance Learning from Service from Campus Compact -- http://www.compact.org/disciplines/reflection/]
Chart for planning timing and location of critical analysis activities – http://bit.ly/2QaNagP
Thank you note activity http://bit.ly/JtknAp
What? So What? Now What?
· Focus on Self; Focus on Service; Focus on Experience
· "Why do Service-Learning?" is a handout for students in your service-learning course(s)
·Rights and Responsibilities is a handout for students in your service-learning course(s) http://bit.ly/179j83u
Guidelines for Service Projects handout for students in your service-learning course(s)
· Have a class discussion or written analysis of a poem. Check out “A Wasp Woman Visits a Black Junkie in Prison” at https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/51368/a-wasp-woman-visits-a-black-junkie-in-prison as a starting point. It is especially good for critiquing the privilege of serving and for working with diverse populations.
Critique service and explore the distinctions and overlap between charity and social justice work. Here’s a one-page essay to get you started http://bit.ly/2xCmv5S
Help students prepare for service-learning with selections from the video series from Boise State http://bit.ly/2R0QdcX
Dressing Professionally
Professional Email Etiquette
Know Your Boundaries 1
Know Your Boundaries 2
Professional Behavior with Cell Phones
Keep Your Commitments
Inspirational reading about service
Soul of a Citizen: Living with Conviction in a Cynical Time by Paul Loeb
How to Make the World a Better Place by Linda Catling
The Impossible Will Take a Little While: A Citizen's Guide to Hope in a Time of Fear by Paul Loeb
The Better World Handbook: Small Changes That Make a Big Difference
by Ellis Jones
The Difference a Day Makes: 365 Ways to Change the World in Just 24 Hours by Karen Jones
Reflective Analysis Activities
Reflection is where the learning happens.
A Practitioner’s Guide to Reflection in Service-Learning: Student Voices and Reflections. Janet Eyler, Dwight E. Giles, Jr., Angela Schmiede.

Post-service reflection (focus on experience)
Reflective Analysis Activities
1. What?
2. So What?
3. Now What?
Critical Analysis is a great way to integrate student input and leadership as students can select and facilitate exercises without disrupting your long-standing deep community partnerships.
Reflective Analysis Activities
Location, Location, Location …or, Timing is Everything
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The service shall be connected to and support the academic learning objectives of the course.

The service shall address a need identified or developed in partnership with the greater community.
Participation in community service is a core component of the course.
Service-learning activities and requirements are described in the course syllabus or independent study contract.
Faculty shall provide structured activities for critical reflection linking the service and academic study.
The opportunity shall be distinct from an internship, field experience, practicum or volunteer activity, unless these experiences meet the above criteria.
In the spirit of service-learning best practice, faculty are strongly encouraged to:

Design the service-learning component to address an off-campus community need, except when intentionally addressing sustainability, peer education, campus activism, etc...
Evaluate students on their ability to draw connections between the community service and course content, not just on completion of service.
Examples of Service-Learning Activities
include but are not limited to
3. In the case of English, doing any kind of community service and writing about it
2. Sharing or tutoring the course content with a community partner
1. Doing what the course is about for or with a community partner
Students have the opportunity to do what they are learning in class through experiential education.

Students have deeper understanding of self and their involvement in the community.
Students are more aware of issues in the community and develop a sense of responsibility to address those issues.
Students are exposed to diverse communities therefore dispelling misconceptions.
Students have a shared experience and opportunity to develop classroom cohesiveness.
Service-learning does not provide your students with a “living lab”
Service-learning is not the answer to all challenges for faculty or community organizations

Service-learning is not the best pedagogy for every course
AND civic learning
AND we also need to ensure that community interest is addressed.
Lack of resources and lack of faculty rewards are barriers
Commitment to research
Increasingly integrating service-learning into courses
Can be used as the connector between faculty teaching, scholarship and University and community service and sometimes personal interests.*
*From Merith Weisman's own experience and conversations with faculty
Social Outcomes
Learning Outcomes

Career Development
Relationship with Institution
sl has positive effect on student personal dev’t – personal efficacy, identity, spiritual growth, moral dev’t & in interpersonal dev’t – team work, leadership, communication skills
reduces or supports stereotyping & facilitates cultural & racial understanding, positive effect on social responsibility & citizenship skills, commitment to service, service in college is associated with involvement in service after graduation
positive impact on academic learning, improve student ability to apply what they’ve learned in real world, impact on grades and GPA is mixed (some positive, some no impact), critical thinking, problem analysis, etc increased by sl, cognitive moral dev’t is mixed (positive, no difference)
contributes to the relationship with institution – stronger faculty relationships, improves student satisfaction with college, more likely to graduate
One of the most consistent findings from the service-learning research is that the service experience provides a “nearly universal” reduction in negative stereotypes and an increase in tolerance for diversity.
Eyler, J., & Giles, D. E. (1999). Where's the learning in service-learning? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Service-learning facilitates an increased awareness of stereotypes and assumptions while students begin to understand larger social issues that affect their service sites.
Jones, S. R., & Hill, K. (2001). Crossing high street: Understanding diversity through community service-learning. Journal of College Student Development, 42(3), 204-216

Students in service-learning programs consisting of regular interaction with people from different ethnic backgrounds are more likely to report growth in self-knowledge and personal growth and greater appreciation of other cultures. Additionally, a study showed that students enrolled in service-learning sections of a race relations class showed greater increases in diversity awareness than sections that did not contain a service-learning component.
Please remember, students of color and students from low-income families may have a different experience when working with ethnically diverse and low-income populations.
“Service for students of color, can also be helping White classmates learn about the communities where they serve and challenging their peers that White and middle class are not normative perspectives.”
Therefore we “should not prepare students for service experiences from a place of fear or risk, but instead showcase the assets and strengths of the communities.”

We should not frame the experience as “‘giving back’ or ‘giving to’ people less fortunate than ourselves.
Levine, Peter (2011). What Do We Know about Civic Engagement? Liberal Education Vol. 9, No. 2.
• When necessary, address the political nature of this
work directly.
•“It is not easy to sort out exactly what it means to align efforts to support political development with core academic values. It does not mean giving equal time to ideas that are without merit, for example.”
When you partner with a community organization you can expect your students to:
Gain real world experience including career exploration, skill building, resume building, and networking. Some students even change their career plans.
Gain understanding of the issues shaping their world, build on their passions, and gain skills to direct those passions in meaningful ways.
Apply abstract concepts or theories to real situations helping them to increase their interest in academic subject matter, understand course concepts and ask valuable questions.
Improve their “self-efficacy” – students believe they can make a difference because they have the knowledge, skills, and self-confidence to do so.
Become more civically engaged, spark greater interest in social issues, politics, and understanding about how to make change.
Time spent coordinating logistics
Differences between academic calendar and standard 12-month calendar
Power differentials due to funds (and formal education, other resources, social class, race, gender, etc.*)
Different values and priorities
Language and jargon
Different incentives for assessment
Staff turnover
Where’s the Learning in Service-Learning by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles Jr.
Pre-service reflection (focus on self)
Service activity (focus on topic/community)
problem based learning for the common good
course-based public scholarship
unpaid community-based internships
community based research
community based participatory research
action research
research for the common good
creative activity for or with a community partner
community service
Serving on community boards and committees
Public service
Pro bono consulting and speaking
advocating for community partners
alternative spring breaks
voter registration drives
community-centered forums
social change activism
Adapted from a report by The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching & CIRCLE (The Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement)
Tips & Trends in Service-Learning
Resources & References
A Crucible Moment: College Learning & Democracy's Future. (2014, July 28). Retrieved September 30, 2015, from http://www.aacu.org/crucible

AACU high impact practices (http://www.aacu.org/leap/hip.cfm)

AAHE Service-Learning in the Disciplines series (http://www.styluspub.com/books/Books.aspx?type=topic&ID=334)

Applegate, James L. and Sherwyn P. Morreale. “Service-Learning in Communication: A Natural Partnership.” Preface/Forward Type. Voices of Strong Democracy: Concepts and Models for Service-learning in Communication Studies. Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC, 2006. Ix-xiv.

Boyle-Baise, M. (Ed.). (2002). Multicultural service learning: Educating teachers in diverse communities. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

Burton, Suzanne and Reynolds, Alison
Transforming Music Teacher Education Through Service Learning. Journal of Music Teacher Education 18 (2) 18-33.

Cohen, Elaine, Johnson, Susan, Nelson, Lois and Peterson, Connie. (1998). Service-Leanring as a Pedagogy in Nursing IN Caring and Community: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Nursing. USA AADE.

Cohen, Lorraine. (1995). Facilitating the Critique of Racism and Classism: An Experiential Model for Euro-American Middle-Class Students.

Coles, Roberta L. (1999). Race-Focused Service-Learning Courses: Issues and Recommendations. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning Vol.6.

From Community-Campus Partnerships for Health, May 2004, as cited by Learn and Service America's National Service-Learning Clearinghouse

Dorado, S., Giles, Jr., D.E. and Welch, T. C. (April 2008). Nonprofit and Delegation of coordination and outcomes in cross-sector partnerships. The case of service-learning partnerships. Voluntary Sector Quarterly.

Draper, Alison J. (2004). Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course. Journal of Chemical Education 81(2), 221-224.

Eisenhut, A., & Flannery, D. (2005). Fostering an Environmental Ethic through Service Learning. Californian Journal of Health Promotion 3(1), 92-102.

Eyler, Janet S., Giles, Jr., Dwight E., Stenson, Christine M., and Gray, Charlene J. (2000). At a Glance: What We Know About the Effects of Service-Learning on College Students, Faculty, Institutions and Communities.

Eyler, J., & Giles, D. E. (1999). Where's the learning in service-learning? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Resources & References
Eyler, Janet S., Giles, Jr., Dwight E., and Schmiede, Angela (1996). A Practitioner’s Guide to Reflection in Service-Learning: Student Voices and Reflections.

Fox, R.L., & Ronkowski, S.A. (1197). Learning styles of political science students. PS: Political Science & Politics, 30(4), 732-737.

Guerra, D. “Service-Learning in Physics: The Consultant Model.” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement Volume 10, Number 3 (2005): 143-151. Print.

Hale, Aileen. "Service-Learning and Spanish: A Missing Link." Construyendo Puentes (Building Bridges): Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Spanish. Eds. Josef Hellebrandt and Lucía T. Varona. Washington D.C.: AAHE, 1999. 9-25. Print.

Howard, Jeffrey (2001) Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning: Service Learning Course Design Workbook
Peer Review (Spring/Summer 2008) Student Political Engagement.

Jones, S. R., & Hill, K. (2001). Crossing high street: Understanding diversity through community service-learning. Journal of College Student Development, 42(3), 204-216

Kuh, G., & Schneider, C. (2008). High-impact educational practices: What they are, who has access to them, and why they matter. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities.
Lee, A. “Learners as Teachers: Student and Community Outcomes of Service-learning in an Undergraduate Chemistry Course.” Transformative Dialogues: Teaching and Learning Journal December 2012.

Liberal Education AAC&U Vol.97, NO.2 Spring 2011

Marullo, S. (1998). Bringing home diversity: A service-learning approach to teaching race and ethnic relations. Teaching Sociology, 26, 259-275.

Mitchell, T.D. and Donahue, D.M. (2009). Paying Attention to the Reflections of Students of Color in Service-Learning in The Future of Service-Learning: New Solutions for Sustaining and Improving Practice, 172-190.

Schahczenski, Celia. "Computer Science, Nonprofits and Service Learning." Frontiers in Education. Vol. 2. 2002.

Scheibel, J., & Bowley, E. (2005). The promise of partnerships: Tapping into the college as a community asset. Providence, RI: Campus Compact.

VanSickle, Jennifer L. and Schaumleffel, Nathan A. (2015). Putting Partnerships on Paper: Creating Service Engagement Opportunities in Kinesiology and recreation. Journal of Physical Edication, Recreation & Dance 86 (4) 24-33.

Varas, P. “Raising Cultural Awareness Through Service-Learning in Spanish Culture and Conversation: Tutoring in the Migrant Education Program in Salem.” Construyendo Puentes (Building Bridges): Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Spanish. Eds. Josef Hellebrandt and Lucía T. Varona. Washington D.C.: AAHE, 1999. 123-135. Print.

Vogelgesang, Lori J., Ikeda, Elaine K., Gilmartin, Shannon K., & Keup, Jennifer R. (2002). "Service-Learning and the First-Year Experience: Outcomes Related to Learning and Persistence." In E.

Ward, H. (1999). “Why is Service-learning So Pervasive in Environmental Studies Programs?” In Ward, H. (Ed.), Acting Locally: Concepts and Models for service-Learning in Environmental Sciences (pp.1-12). Washington, DC: AAHE.

Zlotkowski (ed.), Service-Learning and the First-Year Experience: Preparing Students for Personal Success and Civic Responsibility (pp15-24). University of South Carolina: National Resource Center for the First-Year Experience & Students in Transition.
Example: Volunteerism
Valuable and may and likely will learn from it, but not service-learning.
Think about: coordination vs collaboration, transaction vs collaboration
Again, a good thing and it’s community engagement and it’s service that students learn from, but not service-learning
No service is happening
Can be done independently such as my experience with my grandmother teaching me about the importance of voting
•Voluntary (unpaid) and
for the common good.
Usually with a non-profit or
governmental agency
•As defined by or in
collaboration with the
community partner
•Measurable. Must be “worth
it” to partner
Another type of experiential education
Valuable to students and community partners. Part of the continuum of service.
but not service-learning
Internships focus on socialization into job market
• Part of an academic class
•Service is a text for the
course and is relevant and
connected to the academic
content of the course
Example: visit to State House or observing a town hall meeting.
Often hunger banquets, homelessness solidarity campouts, clotheslines project, etc. fall into this category.
Valuable learning happens, but not service-learning
•Addresses our civic
Example: Alternative Spring Break programs
Focus on student learning outcomes instead of input (time/effort)
Place as much value on student choice for their community work as you would on any other course text
Know the service-learning project and community partner as well as you would any other text
Students learned about their own project in depth
Students were inspired to learn textbook material, not for an exam, but because it helped them understand their own project
Courses at Sonoma State University that seek to bear a service-learning designation should adhere to the following guidelines:
Many faculty use service-learning to dispel stereotypes and create awareness of the impact of social structures and forces on the lives of individuals
Personal experience per se
did not necessarily lead students to achieve new insights.
Impact of Service-Learning on
Community Partners
Focus on student learning outcomes and impact in the community instead of input (time/effort)
Research shows community partners have specific concerns about the use of hours to document student activities in community settings.
They report that in their view counting hours doesn't measure student performance or learning, and they observed that a focus on hours often diminished student commitment to the work in the community from one of learning to one of "getting my time in."
While partners understood the academic institution's need to make sure students do the assigned work and put in a fair and equitable level of effort, they didn't believe that counting hours was sufficient in and of itself to even measure those factors.
They suggested that additional strategies be used to measure effort, measure learning outcomes, and that partners should be asked whether or not they are interested in commenting on the student's performance on assigned community-based tasks.
Service-learning's strongest effect appears be on the student's decision to pursue a career in a service field. This effect occurs regardless of whether the student's freshmen career choice is in a service field, a non-service field, or "undecided."
Coles, Roberta L. (1999). Race-Focused Service-Learning Courses: Issues and Recommendations. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning Vol.6
The mission of Sonoma State University is to prepare students to be learned persons who

•have a foundation for life-long learning,

•have a broad cultural perspective,

•have a keen appreciation of intellectual and aesthetic achievements,

•will be
active citizens and leaders in society,

•are capable of pursuing fulfilling careers in a changing world, and

•are concerned with
contributing to the health and well-being of the world at large.
"There is probably no disciplinary area—from Architecture to Zoology—where service-learning cannot be fruitfully employed to strengthen students' ability to become active learners as well as active citizens."
—Edward Zlotkowski
"Part of the mission of the School of Business and Economics is to advance best business practices in the North Bay and beyond. Service-learning programs provide an opportunity for students to participate by applying the tools and methods they are learning in the classroom to support the work of community organizations. Working with community partners helps students appreciate the important role businesses and business professionals play in making contributions to our community."
— Former Dean William Silver
“With service-learning, students have the chance to apply theoretical learning to a real organizational setting. By helping community partners, students learned how to apply effective change management techniques.”

Dr. Liz Thach,
Management and Wine Business
"Service-learning makes science and technology real for our students. They apply their enthusiasm and knowledge to solving real world problems in helping our community. Our students blossom and our world becomes a better a place."

—Dean Lynn Stauffer
S-L in Business
S-L in Social Sciences
"Service-learning is an integral part of the education in the social sciences. By working collaboratively with faculty and having real world experiences the students understand the complexities of social change and they become change agents in that world."

—Dean Elaine Leeder
“CATS is a great program for both families and students. Families get the extra support they need and the students receive a hands- on learning experience. I’ve learned so much about different interventions and individualized education programs and about the symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.”
- Marissa Georges, Psychology Student
The students were also exposed to some of the issues that urban areas and people face with regard to access to green space and healthy produce. This has provided students with learning that they cannot get from lectures or textbooks alone.

Dr. Chris Castanga, former lecturer in Geography
Service Learning in University Studies
"Service-learning can increase retention by promoting greater engagement with the larger community, greater academic engagement, and greater interpersonal engagement."
-Gallini and Moely (2003)

Much more information at http://cce.sonoma.edu/faculty/service-learning-disciplines/service-learning-university-studies
Service-Learning in Arts & Humanities
“Service-learning in the context of Composition can increase students’ conception of the social far more effectively than either textbooks or experience alone.”

—Robert Crooks, Linda Adler- Kassner, and Ann Watters
“Focusing an upper division interdisciplinary seminar on the topic of food provides an excellent opportunity for developing community-based learning projects. The need for healthy food and sustainable agricultural systems is a topic that is gaining considerable recognition in the public media and stimulates considerable interest among students.”
—Dr. Debora Hammond
“Service-learning in a community of the language being studied provides the context in which to apply classroom knowledge. Additionally, if students aim to be successfully integrated into the community of a language they are studying for professional purposes, it is essential that they gain experience in this community before graduation.”

—Aileen Hale
“Service-learning has come to be one of the means by which students learn philosophy and confront foundational questions of meaning, value, and responsibility.”

—David A. Hoekema
“Service-learning is an effective pedagogical tool that can counter conventional wisdom in a way that mere words of authors and professors cannot. ”

—Dr. Velia Garcia, Raza Studies, SFSU
Service-Learning in Education
The integration of service-learning into teacher education implies work in two areas:
(1) using service-learning as a pedagogical technique in the postsecondary setting
(2) teaching licensure-seeking students how to integrate service-learning into their own repertoire of teaching techniques.
Having the skills and experience to integrate service-learning themselves may be more valuable than participating in service-learning. Mary J. Syfax Noble, elementary school administrator in the Minneapolis Public Schools explains:

(Service-learning) assists schools in making important connections to the broader community...is a critical part of the entire school-reform picture...because service-learning does not compete with the standard curriculum. It supports and deepens the curriculum for all students...An important first step is to make sure service-learning is tied into the school’s mission or vision.

from A K-12 Administrator's Perspective by Mary J. Syfax Noble in Learning With the Community: Concepts and Models for Service Learning in Teacher Education
Service-learning activity in a postsecondary setting usually falls into two categories:

A) Teaching/tutoring/sharing knowledge from the class
Example: Graduate students from Clemson University learning about service-learning, teach K-12 teachers how to develop and implement a service-learning project with children.

B) Using information in the class to doing something with/for a community organization.
Example: Students in EDUC 295 tutor students at Roseland University Prep.

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Sonoma State University
Center for Community Engagement
Experience and education cannot be directly equated to each other. For some,
experiences are mis-educative.

At times the experiences alone merely
confirm the stereotypes and camouflage the structures.
“We find that working within a service-learning paradigm helps community stakeholders see music, music educators, and music students as valuable resources— and valuable future employees—for their communities.”
—Suzanne Burton and Alison Reynolds
“Students who had completed the service-learning clinical component were more sensitized to the role of the nurse in the community setting. They were also more knowledgeable about community health resources and more comfortable with interdisciplinary communication.”
—Elaine Cohen, Susan Johnson, Lois Nelson, and Connie Peterson
Students at the University of Indianapolis in Indiana partnered with the local chapter of Special Olympics in hosting the Special Olympics State Youth Basketball event on the university campus. The students planned, organized, and implemented the event. “The service engagement experience created mutually beneficial opportunities for both organizations. Special Olympics received a rent-free space to hold their annual youth basketball tournament and committees to plan, organize, and implement the event. The university, in turn, offered an immersive, experiential service engagement course for kinesiology and athletic training majors to apply content covered in previous courses.”
- Jennifer VanSickle, Nathan Schaumleffel
“There is a special reflexive relationship between the study of communication as the means for constructing social reality and service-learning as a pedagogy designed to enhance social life and communities.”
—James L Applegate and Sherwyn P. Morreale, National Communication Association
In 2016, research from the University of Georgia finds that service-learners who graduated in 2010 made an average of $4,600 more in the first year of their first full-time job if they had participated in service-learning courses while earning their degrees. When compared to those who hadn't taken service-learning courses they also received their first raises more than two-and-a-half months sooner.
Math students at LSU in Baton Rouge, Louisiana have had a long tradition of tutoring East Baton Rouge elementary school children in math concepts. The “students have introduced a more understandable and enjoyable version of math in 13 public schools – from elementary through alternative education.” As one professor noted “We often get the comment that our service-learning project is the best thing they have done at LSU for any class, because it is the first time they can put into practice what they are learning.” The benefits to the community are still emerging but as another professor said “It is in this reciprocity that LSU and the community will begin to develop a new view of what we can do together.”
Elaine Wellin - tell us a bit about Sociology and service-learning....
Campus Compact is a national coalition of nearly 1,100 colleges and universities committed to the public purposes of higher education. Sonoma State University is a member. In 2016, Campus Compact had its 30th anniversary and issued an Action Statement which President Armiñana signed. Included is:

These are commitments we make to each other with a recognition that our goals for a thriving and sustainable democracy cannot be achieved if we act alone—and that they cannot be denied if we act together. Our success over the last thirty years gives us confidence that we can build a world in which all students are prepared for lives of engaged citizenship, all campuses are engaged in strong partnerships advancing community goals, and all of higher education is recognized as an essential building block of a just, equitable, and sustainable future. In affirming these statements, each of us makes a commitment to develop a Campus Civic Action Plan within one year after March 20, 2016, or the date thereafter on which we become signatories. Our Civic Action Plans will state the actions our campuses will take as we move forward with a renewed sense of urgency, along with the impacts we expect to achieve. Our Civic Action Plans will be shared publicly, as will our assessments of the progress we are making in achieving the goals stated in the Plans.

We empower our students, faculty, staff, and community partners to co-create mutually respectful partnerships in pursuit of a just, equitable, and sustainable future for communities beyond the campus—nearby and around the world.

We prepare our students for lives of engaged citizenship, with the motivation and capacity to deliberate, act, and lead in pursuit of the public good.
We embrace our responsibilities as place based institutions, contributing to the health and strength of our communities—economically, socially, environmentally, educationally, and politically.
We harness the capacity of our institutions—through research, teaching, partnerships, and institutional practice—to challenge the prevailing social and economic inequalities that threaten our democratic future.

We foster an environment that consistently affirms the centrality of the public purposes of higher education by setting high expectations for members of the campus community to contribute to their achievement.

Additionally, the CSU has entered into an agreement with the CA Secretary of State’s Office and the CA State Student Association to increase voter engagement, registration and turnout on campus. Each campus is encouraged to develop a plan to support student civic engagement.
Chemistry students from Rockhurst University in Kansas City, Missouri tutored Hogan Prep Academy Charter High School students in AP Chemistry. The professor noted “…I have found these projects help me come closer to these goals in a way that would not happen in what would be considered a more traditional classroom setting. Though this approach to teaching Chemistry is more time intensive, the benefits to me and my students cannot be overstated.
Use the CSU Service Learning Definition and Taxonomy to assess the attributes of your service-learning course
Students at Willamette University in Salem, Oregon, took part in a service-learning project n which the university students were able to connect with the children by using a common language and “accomplishing the set goal of ‘vocabulary building and acquisition of oral communication skills.’ “ Upon reflecting on their experiences students noted “their own fears and values; they feel a sense of solidarity with the child who is afraid of being laughed at: Many have been there before….this creates an environment in which everyone learns because the authority and power granted by knowledge are actively deconstructed, with both the pupil and tutor functioning as learners and teachers.” The efforts of the university students were acknowledged with small tokens of appreciation from the community partner. In the end the “students became aware that we are not value free in our judgments and that language acquisition is part of learning a culture. We cannot learn one without the other.”

Varas, P. “Raising Cultural Awareness Through Service-Learning in Spanish Culture and Conversation: Tutoring in the Migrant Education Program in Salem.” Construyendo Puentes (Building Bridges): Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Spanish. Eds. Josef Hellebrandt and Lucía T. Varona. Washington D.C.: AAHE, 1999. 123-135. Print.
“Service-learning in a community of the language being studied provides the context in which to apply classroom knowledge. Additionally, if students aim to be sucessfully integrated into the community of a language they are studying for professional purposes, it is essential that they gain experience in this community before graduation.”

Hale, Aileen. "Service-Learning and Spanish: A Missing Link." Construyendo Puentes (Building Bridges): Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Spanish. Eds. Josef Hellebrandt and Lucía T. Varona. Washington D.C.: AAHE, 1999. 9-25. Print.
“The nonprofit sector offers excellent database & software engineering projects for computer science undergraduate students. By involving students with nonprofit agencies we not only help the nonprofit agency better accomplish its mission, we strengthen student awareness that they can improve society & we encourage a sense of civic duty that we hope will last a lifetime.”

~ Schahczenski, Celia. "Computer Science, Nonprofits and Service Learning." Frontiers in Education. Vol. 2. 2002.
“Service-learning offers physics students the opportunity to apply their problem-solving skills for the benefit of others ”

Guerra, D. “Service-Learning in Physics: The Consultant Model.” Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement Volume 10, Number 3 (2005): 143-151. Print.
“We see service-learning as an opportunity to expose our psychology majors to this connection between content and application many times throughout their coursework.”

~ Randall E. Osborne, Kenneth Weadick, and James Penticuff
“Sonoma State University exists to serve the entire community and we are proud of our rich tradition of community engagement. Through the efforts of faculty, staff, students, and community partners, we are able to extend student learning far beyond the classroom. Community partnerships help our students develop the skills they need to be responsible, empathetic, global citizens upon graduation.”

—SSU Provost Lisa Vollendorf
“Service-learning and community engagement are central to Sonoma State’s mission and identity. When our students become involved with diverse elements of the community, they make a difference in people’s lives and find out how gratifying it is to be of service. I love these programs because they help our students to grow and develop and they help us serve the North Bay region.”

— SSU President Judy Sakaki
Students at Ithaca College Music Education Department partnered with the Tompkins Community Action Headstart Program. “The project is designed to provide music experiences both for children with special needs, such as students with disabilities and those who are English language learners and for children from low income and high needs backgrounds. During weekly visits to Ithaca College's campus, students from area Headstart programs participate in lessons designed to provide valuable musical opportunities. Music lessons are also structured to enhance and expand skills that are taught in their Headstart classroom. These include gross and fine motor, language, cognitive, and social skills. In addition to the enhancement of developmental skills, children in this program experience the joy of making music from the time they enter the class until they leave.” All music education students benefitted from the experience by assisting the lead teacher.”

- "Project Headstart - Music Education - Ithaca College." Ithaca College, n.d. Web. 14 July 2015.
Working with the CCE in the very near future
CCE is going digital!
Faculty will be able to register in our new software, SSU Engage (Community Partners and Students will register as well).
Faculty will be able to promote their community engaged courses to potential community partners.
Faculty will be able to see the progress of students, as approved by community partners.
This should help streamline the process for all our everyone.

Sonoma State Strategic Plan includes 4 Core Values
1. Diversity and social justice
2. Sustainability and environmental inquiry
3. Connectivity and community engagement
4. Adaptability and responsiveness
Dr. Farid Faramand instructed Engineering Science (ES 100), teaching universal design principles, known as the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible. This allowed students to better understand assistive technologies which promote designs that are usable by a wide variety of people for a wide range of applications. ES 110 students designed a simple electro-mechanical ball throwing machine to assist students with physical disabilities. Using the product, children with special needs become engaged in group physical activities while improving their peer interaction and social skills. Since there is no commercially developed ball-throwing machine for disabled children, this project was very promising for physical education instructors. The engineering students were able to learn more about special needs and major concepts in engineering as well as contributing to the community. In the final class survey, students said that this project made them feel more interested in engineering and incorporating engineering concepts for community needs.
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