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Copy of Free fall template

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Gabriel Teo

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Free fall template

Text here More text PF1102 G Floors The term floor refers to the structural part of a horizontal supporting element Definition Strength and stability
Fire resistance
Sound insulation
Damp resistance Functional Requirements Plain or reinforced concrete on hardcore resting on the ground is used to transmit the whole of building load to the soil. Strength and stability Fire resistance is important in respect of upper floors which are often required to act as highly resistant fire barriers between the different floors of a shophouse. Fire Resistance An important consideration in the design of upper floors in shophouses.

When timber construction is used for the upper floors, the floors are sound insulated such as carpeting the floor. Sound Insulation Damp resistance is important at the ground level. A damp-proof membrane is used to prevent the moisture from the ground to deteriorate the floor finishes. Damp Resistance Observations Primary purpose –
facilitate movement of people/objects from one level to another. Stairs Strength and Stability
Fire Resistance
Sound Insulation Functional Requirements Within Live and Dead Loads
Choice of materials
In-site concrete
Pre cast Concrete
Stones Strength and Stability Facilitate escapes
Ability to withstand destruction by fire
Fire Rated of half hour rating by SCDF
Material choice-salient Fire Resistance paddings Primarily – Internal Stairs
Affected by choice of materials
Source of noise pollution
Denser materials or insulated. Sound insulation Internal Stairs External Stairs BCA states “The length of a tapered tread or winder in a spiral, circular or geometric staircase measured at a distance of 500 mm from the narrower end shall not be less than 225 mm in the case of residential buildings and 250 mm in the case of other buildings -Environmental Conditions
-Overview Of Shophouses
-Building Form
-Conclusion CONTENT Environmental Conditions Located near the Equator
Tropical Climate
Well protected by neighbouring countries
Humidity Early immigrants brought over customs and building traditions
Built as home of a merchant and his family.
Business at front room on ground floor, accommodation at rear and upper floors
Shophouses were designed based on culture
Design of shophouses unique to area occupied by different ethnic groups Defining the Shop Houses Influenced by old Chinese Architecture
Long and narrow in shape
Importance of symmetry
Common 5 foot ways for business – forms a linkage with other shop houses
Different Styles across different periods Building Forms Observations Observations Honeycomb sleeper walls Suspended timber flooring in site C (An extension from the concrete flooring) Observations PF1102 Project Presentation Shophouses Group Members:
EE LOON YEW: A0097571U
SUIN YOON: A0103124A External Walls Common Materials Used Made of burnt clay, shale, sand, lime and flint

Stretcher bond
Header bond
English bond
Flemish bond

Necessitates a strong foundation for support, especially in Singapore’s marine clay soil Brickwork Common Bricks VS Facing Bricks Facing Bricks
Beautiful fair faces
Can be customized with a variety of colours and textures Common Bricks
Poorer in quality
Prone to cracking
Plastering is required Ratio of cement, water and aggregates affects density, strength and load-bearing capacity

Aesthetically unappealing

Mostly plastered
Bigger but lighter than bricks Concrete Blocks Prone to moisture movement & shrinkage
 Hairline cracks
At junctions control joints are added
Avoid use of dense mortars Reinforced concrete for loadbearing walls
Additional steel bars or meshes
to withstand building tensile load

Precast concrete
Shorten construction time External Concrete Walls Functional Requirements External loadbearing masonry walls
Most economical building structure and material for small-scale buildings

Withstand dead and live loads even under harsh weather conditions

Constructed to the appropriate thickness
Limit width of openings in order to provide sufficient bearing area of wall

Concrete block walls have a greater strength ratio than brick walls Strength, Durability and StabilitySSTRE Resistant to rain and wind especially during the monsoon season the occasional flash-flood in Singapore
Capillary attraction through cracks between the mortar and units

Cavity walls
Provide an impervious layer
Made of highly-elastic acrylic and silicone resins thus minimizing crack development Weather Resistance As bricks are porous, plastering,
coating or pointing is required
Water-proof cement used to fill joints Weather Resistance Ventilation
Essential to maintaining the quality of air indoors
Prevent internal environment from becoming stuffy and oppressive
Prevent the accumulation of airborne pollutants which have adverse effects on our health Air Admission Ventilation Gaps Ventilation Louvres Prevent the interior from heating up excessively especially in Singapore’s equatorial climate
Conserve electricity on the usage of electrical cooling systems, keeping costs down

Common brickwork has
lower thermal conductivity
than light-weight and
medium concrete Thermal Insulation Keeping the thickness of walls within practical limits….

Use of cavities and light-weight insulating blocks Thermal Insulation Fire-resistant Masonry
Concrete is most resistant to heat and fire
Serve as a barrier preventing the spread of fire

Separate specific fire risks within the building structure and from buildings in close vicinity to each other

Fire will be confined within a given area and safe escape routes will be available to occupants Fire Resistance Concrete wall in between two shophouses to prevent spread of fire Fire Resistance Party Walls
Extended about 300mm above the roof
Prevent the spread of fire to adjacent units

If party walls do not extend above the roof…
Use of vermiculite cement grouting between roof tiles and timber purlins along the masonry walls Fire Resistance Materials used in construction of shophouses
Relate to environmental conditions
Practical in fulfilling functional requirements
Durable enough to last from time of construction to present
Shophouses are dynamic
Being adopted as residences or office space
Have to be preserved to retain historical and cultural significance
Are architectural marvels that were built without modern machineries and materials CONCLUSION Strength, Durability and Stability
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