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The Impact of Paid Work
Transcript of The Impact of Paid Work
The 'new man'. Myth or reality?
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Trend towards greater equality in housework.
The longer a wife had been in paid work the more housework the husband did.
Equality in parents' housework roles meant more likely to share housework duties.
Social attitudes towards housework gradually adapting to women in paid work.
Commercialisation of housework
Silver (1987) & Schor (1993) - Two major economic developments decreasing burden on women and housework.
Housework has become '
' - Goods housewives previously had to produce now readily available & mass produced. Freezers, microwaves, fast-food, ready meals.
The commercialisation of housework has led to reduction in the amount of domestic labour that needs to be done.
Women working has also increased spending power to buy goods and services.
Silver and Schor argue that this has led to '
The death of the housewife role
Which Sociologist described the concept for 'The Rise of the Housewife Role' in the 19th Century?
Emotion work - work whose main feature is management of one's and other people's emotions.
Hochschild (1983) Women likely to perform jobs which involve emotional labour. e.g. Airline stewardess, nursery staff, carers, etc.
Morgan (1997) - applied this to the family. Emotion work seen as 'labour of love'. Caring for a sick child. Mainly done by women.
Marsden (1995) - Not just double shift (dual burden) but
' Paid work, housework and emotion work.
Although men are doing more housework than they used to there is still a division in household tasks.
Crompton (1997) - accepts Gershuny's evidence but explains it differently. As women's earning power increases, men do more at home.
What do we know about pay levels in relation to gender in the UK?
The Dual Burden
Feminists argue that despite women working, they are still expected to do most of the housework.
Therefore feminists reject the notion of the 'new man'.
Feminists argue therefore that instead of doing less housework, since working, they have acquired a
of both paid work and unpaid housework.
Ferri & Smith (1996) - Women working has had little impact on the domestic division of labour. Fewer than 4% men took main responsibility for childcare.
Morris (1990) - Men who are unemployed unlikely to do housework as seen as women's role.
Xavier Ramos (2003) - In families where the man is not paid to work and partner works full-time, male domestic labour matches that of women.
Feminists use this as evidence that the family is still patriarchal and benefits men who gain a second wage as well as a housewife doing most (if not all of the domestic labour.
Lesbian couples & gender scripts
Dunne (1999) - deeply ingrained 'gender scripts'. Expectations or norms in gender roles women and men play in heterosexual couples expected to play.
Her study found it to be different in lesbian couples. Not expected roles and so equal share of housework, equal view of partner's careers and equal childcare. Found evidence of symmetry in their relationships.
Lesbian couples interact in a different way as they are not under pressure to conform to masculine and feminine roles as in heterosexual relationships.
Paid work influence important in same-sex relationships too.
Sullivan (2000) trend towards equality as men now do more.
Increase in number of couples with equal division of labour and men doing 'women's' tasks.
Supports the view of which Sociologists?
Arber & Ginn (1995) - Full-time childcare essential. Middle-class women may be able to afford this but working-class women cannot. Trapped in a vicious circle of childcare responsibilities and low-paid, part time work.
Gregson & Lowe (1994) - Employment of domestic 'help' in middle-class families. i.e Cleaners and nannies.
Homework! - Questionnaires.
What did you find from your sociological research?
Speak to the person sitting next to you and tell them the 3 points you found.
Explain to your partner which sociological view on housework does your findings fit in with and why?
Symmetrical family (Young & Willmott)
Greater trend towards equality (Gershuny)
• Understand factors which have lessened the time devoted to housework.
• To understand the concept of the ‘dual burden’ and why sociologists argue this exists.
• To be able to explain what is meant by the term ‘emotion work’.
• To see the differences in lesbian couples and understand gender scripts
Criticisms of the commercialisation of housework:
Is this true of poorer women or is the disappearance of housework a middle-class phenomenon?
Although housework has decreased, does this mean a fair share of the remaining housework?
Lesbian Couples and gender scripts continued...
supports the radical feminist view
that relationships between men and women are based on patriarchal system and that women can only achieve equality in same-sex relationships.
Weeks (1999) - agrees with Dunne that same-sex relationships more likely to be equal because it is open to negotiation and agreement and not based on patriarchal tradition.
Criticisms: Dunne found that paid work had a big influence on the division of labour even within same-sex relationships.
Some evidence to suggest women in full-time work leads to more equality in domestic labour.
Feminists argue this remains unequal though in both time spent and tasks done. Women are likely to take on a '
' or '
Feminists argue this inequality is due to patriarchy. Patriarchal gender scripts mean women are more likely to do a more unequal (and greater share) of housework (unlike in lesbian couples). Patriarchy also ensures women earn less than men at work meaning they have less bargaining power at home.
Until patriarchy is addressed there will be no equality in the home, according to feminists.
.... is the answer. What is the question?
Write a question to the following answers.
The death of the housewife role
Commercialisation of housework
Duncombe & Marsden