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Processes That Shape The Earth by Jeffrey Micono
Transcript of Processes That Shape The Earth by Jeffrey Micono
Alfred Wegener was the one who made this theory. There was plenty of evidence to support this claim. Mainly, it had to do with geological figures and similar fossils being found in areas across the sea! Faulting Faults have to do with the shifting of tectonic plates. When these plates collide, because they do not slide over each other smoothly, there is a lot of pressure buildup, and eventually, there is a large crack or sudden change in height of the rock. Faults can change the foundation on which buildings are put. The other problem with
faults is when the faults happen, the pipes underground can burst, causing large messes. Earth's Energy Budget Earth's Energy Budget is basically how much energy is received from the sun and the radiation that is rebounded. This refers only to the energy received from the sun, excluding Greenhouse Gasses and other things like that. This is measured in petawatts, which is:
watts x 10^15 Remote Sensing Remote sensing is using your senses to interact something that you do not interact with, for example, a rock on Mars. One of the most common example is a camera, which you can use to Skype with someone in New York. You interact with them without physically being there. There are two main types of remote sensing: passive remote sensing and active remote sensing. Passive remote sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding areas. Sunlight is the most common source absorbed. One example is infrared light. Active remote sensing uses energy to discover objects. Energy is sent out, and the sensor measures how much radiation rebounds. An example is RADAR. GIS (Geographic Information System) GIS, or Geographic Information System, can do pretty much anything with geographical data. It is a database. GIS programs have the ability to integrate, store, edit, analyze, share, and display all forms of geographical data. Rock Types Igneous Rock is formed by the cooling of lava. It may or may not have crystallization, and generally forms below the Earth's Crust. Metamorphic Rocks are rocks that change via pressure and heat. 150-200 degrees Celsius, with pressure of 1500 bars is required. The Metamorphic Rock starts out as Protolith. Sedimentary Rock is rock that is formed from the deposition of material at the Earth's surface in water. The area is generally formed by weathering and erosion. When plates collide, there is an earthquake. Sometimes, if the plates simply slide on top of each other: mountains may be formed. Satellites Satellites, or artificial satellites, are machines made of metal launched into orbit by humans. They are called "artificial" because they are man-made. This name also distinguishes them from natural satellites, such as the moon. The world's first satellite was launched by Soviet Union, the Sputnik 1. Nowadays, thousands of satellites orbit the earth. Erosion Erosion is the process of water or wind taking the particles of rock, for example, and depositing them elsewhere. There are many different types of erosion, including floods, wind, rain. THE GRAND CANYON The Grand Canyon started out as a surface of water. Overtime, the river deposited layers of rock and such from other erosion, building up layers. The water stayed, eroding the surfaces that were previously formed, while forces of the Earth were pushing bits of the stream up. Eventually, the water drained, the forces stopped, and the Canyon stopped morphing. THE END Doppler Radar (The Doppler Effect) This is just a specialized radar that includes the Doppler effect. It does its job by outputting a microwave signal towards a desired target and observes the rebound. The Doppler effect mainly has to do with sound waves. The effect was named after Christian Doppler, a Austrian physicist. It is easily seen with a siren, because when it is approaching you from behind, the siren sounds soft and gets louder. Once the siren passes you, the siren gets softer. Weathering and Mechanical Weathering Weathering is the chemical change in rocks, causing breakdown. Weathering is different from erosion because weathering consists of no motion, while erosion is made from motion. Mechanical weathering can be done artificially by humans. One example is water. It can get in the cracks and then freeze, expanding. Even some of the hardest rocks are no match for this type of weathering. GPS GPS, or Global Positioning System, provides the location from anywhere on Earth. The data is obtained from satellites that are orbiting the Earth. GPS was created in 1973 by the Department of Defense to overcome the parameters of previous satellite GPS systems. Fossils Fossils are found in rock. Scientists can look at a cross cut of these rocks and determine the order that they died in. If desired, they could use remote sensing to decipher the age. Fossils are remains of an animal that once lived. Fossils are very rare, because once an animal dies, it usually decomposes fast. In order for it to become a fossil, it has to be covered in sediment as soon as possible. There are exceptions, where the fossil-to-be comes to rest in an anoxic environment, is frozen, or desiccated. Layers of the Earth The Earth is made from many layers, which are spherical shells, and can be defined by their chemical or rheological properties. There are many layers:
Inner Core. THE END Defining Hello, my name is: Constructive Processes Destructive Processes Tools Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Tsunamis 1. Earthquakes can cause volcanic eruptions.
2. Volcanic eruptions can cause earthquakes.
3. Earthquakes can cause tsunamis.
4. Earthquakes can occur without any side effects.
5. Volcanoes can occur without earthquakes.
6. Tsunamis CANNOT occur without an earthquake.
7. Earthquakes can destroy buildings and make mountains.
8. Volcanoes can destroy buildings and add to the surface.
9. Tsunamis can erode beaches.
10. Hurricanes are tornadoes that originate over water.
11. Tornadoes originate on land.
12. Hurricanes can travel onto land and still be called a hurricane.
13. There are many velocities of all the "disasters" explained above. Experiments Tornadoes Lets visit:
http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/tornado/interactive/interactive.html Earthquake Lets visit:
http://tlc.discovery.com/convergence/quakes/interactives/makeaquake.html Volcano Lets visit:
http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-play/volcano-explorer Tsunamis Please note, this can spell "I am nuts"
which is what you are if you stay near one Lets acquire:
A tall and long bin filled with water
Towels (just in case)
1. Put bricks in water
2. Smash them together
3. Record the aftermath Erosion Let's acquire:
A 5-gallon bucket half-filled with sand
Towels (just in case)
1. Put water into a pitcher of some type
2. Pour the water into the sand, and watch what happens
3. Record the observations For Tracking Changes
in the Earth Try to make an mega-earthquake proof building! See what the range is for destruction with a F-5 tornado! Learn the four types of volcanoes! Which is the most harmless? What is a fire fountain? Find the relation between the force of the bricks and the height of the swell! What would happen if there was a more forceful source of water? STEVE