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Personalities that made a difference throughout history
Transcript of Personalities that made a difference throughout history
action against RACISM
action against WAR
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela
Ukuthula: African prayer for peace
martin luther king
Born in Grande Rivière du Nord 15 October 1876 – 1 March 1969
He was a Haitian teacher, diplomat, writer, and ethnographer
His writings championed the Negritude movement in Hait
He argued against the prevailing prejudice and ideology, which rejected all non-white, non-Western elements of the cultures of the Americas
A civil rights leader, an African American Baptism minister who , in the 1950s and 1960s , peacefully and succesfully campaigned for social jystice for Africa Americans in the US
King worked hard to end racial segregation in the southern states of the US.
His efforts,along with those of other civil rights activists,resulted in the
government's abolition of many racist laws
A man named James Earl Ray shot and killed King in 1968
by Sfondylis Stelios
by Pasalis Alexandros
Born 2 November 1941 in Salt Lake City.
He was a writer, lay theologian, educator, and peace activist.
Since 1989 he has been international secretary of the Orthodox Peace Fellowship.
As a young man, Jim served in the U.S. Navy, working with a meteorology unit at the U.S. Weather Bureau headquarters near Washington.
After leaving the Navy, Jim joined the staff of the Catholic Worker community in Manhattan.
Jim had a long-term friendship with Thomas Merton, who dedicated a book to him, Faith and Violence.
A journalist and writer, his books include Praying with Icons, Ladder of the Beatitudes, The Road to Emmaus.
Frédéric Passy was born on May 20, 1822
Paris, France and died on June 12, 1912 (aged 90) in Paris, France.
He was a french economist and a joint winner (together with Henry Dunant) of the first Nobel Peace Prize awarded in 1901.
His reputation was established through his Mélanges économiques (1857) essays and a lecture series given at the University of Montpellier and published as the Leçons d'économie politique.In 1877 he became a member of the French Académie des sciences morales et politiques, a component of the Institut de France; and he was a commander of the Legion of Honor.He was president of the Society of Political Economy for 70 years.
In 1881, he won election to the Chamber of Deputies, where he advocated foreign policy changes and labor reform, including legislation on industrial accidents. He won reelection in 1886 but lost in 1889. He also supported a system of international conflict arbitration, which was inspired by Randal Cremer's resolution that established arbitration between the United States and England. In 1888, his efforts led to a meeting between British Parliamentary members and French deputies to discuss the concept of organized arbitration. The following year, the Inter-Parliamentary Union was established with Passy as one of its presidents. He was a member of the International Bureau of Peace at Bern, Switzerland.
Works,Mélanges économiques (1857),De la Propriété Intellectuelle (1859) De l'Enseignement obligatoire (1859),Leçons d'économie politique (1860–61),la Démocratie et l'Instruction (1864),La Guerre et la Paix (1867),L'Histoire du Travail (1873),Malthus et sa Doctrine (1868),La Solidarité du Travail et du Capital (1875),L'Histoire et les sciences morales et politiques (1879),Le Petit Poucet du 19ième Siècle: George Stephenson (1881),Historique du mouvement de la paix (1905)
Passy's writings and speeches advocating peace were widely recognized. In 1909, he published Pour la paix, a work which chronicled the establishment of the various peace and arbitration organizations with which he was associated. From 1881 to 1902, he was professor of political economy in several colleges.
He didn't have a family. He was not married and he didn't have children. He was dedicated for his career.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was Indian politician,thinker and revolutionist activist.He was born in coastal Gujarat,western India on October 1869. He was raised in a Hindu merchant caste family. His parents were Putlibai Gandhi (Mother), Karamchand Gandhi (Father). When Gandhi was 78 years old, Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948, in Delphi, by firing three bullets into his chest at point-blank range. He is also known as Mahatma (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable") or Bapu (Gujarati: endearment for "father", "papa" in India. In common parlance in Bharat (India) he is called Gandhiji; reference as Gandhi can be considered lacking in good form and respect.
His Education and Achievements
He graduated from Alfred High School, Rajkot, Samaldas College, Bhavnagar, University College, London (UCL) and Education barrister-at-law. It is worth to mention that Gandhi was a successful lawyer with a law office in South Africa.
There are so many to tell about his accomplishments. Here are some of the important ones:
Gandhi led a 200 mile Salt March so that the people of India could make and gather their own salt. His goal was for the people of India not to buy salt from the British.
Gandhi went on a 21 day fast to protest against the war between the Muslims and the Hindus and also to protest against Great Britain no allowing India to be free.
The greatest accomplishment of Gandhi was his life-long fight for the independence of India. His dream for his country's independence finally became reality on August 15, 1947.
On December 1930 he was awarded as Man of the year
He wrote two books: a) His autobiography b) the book of Gandhi's wisdom.
A world event
Historian R.B. Cribb argues that Gandhi's thought evolved over time, with his early ideas becoming the core or scaffolding for his mature philosophy. For example, in London he committed himself to truthfulness, temperance, chastity, and vegetarianism.To sum up, this person, that he deserves our respect, is known for his leadership of Indian independence movement, his philosophy of Satyagraha, Ahimsa, his nonviolence and his pacifism.
Born 3 April 1912 – 27 May 1963 in the village of Kerasitsa in the district of Tegea.
He was a Greek politician, physician, track and field athlete, and member of the faculty of the School of Medicine at the University of Athens.
Lambrakis was a champion athlete throughout his life. He earned several gold medals in the Balkan Games.
After World War II, Lambrakis completed his medical studies and worked as a lecturer in the Department of gynaecology. He continued to help the poor by running a small private clinic for patients who were unable to afford medical care.
Lambrakis remained in the hearts of the Greek people as a national symbol of democracy.
After the fall of the military dictatorship in 1974, numerous places, including a football stadium in Kallithea and streets and squares throughout the country, have been named in honor of Grigoris Lambrakis.
BY EMILIA BAHA
by Lina Papadopoulou
Born November 3, 1942 in Arakawa, Tokyo
Japanese mathematician, politician and served as the mayor of the city of Hiroshima, Japan from 1999 to 2011.
As mayor, he has been a visible peace activist. He is active in the Mayors
In 2007 he received the Nuclear-Free Future Award in the solutions category.
In August 2010, he received the Ramon Magsaysay Award for his advocacy for nuclear disarmament, and in April 2013 he was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal from the United Nations Association of Germany and the Governing Mayor of Berlin.
He is on the Board of Advisors of the Global Security Institute.
for Peace organization, serving as the president of their World Conference.
by Sofia Vlachou
By Marilina Dovletoglou
Birth name John Winston Lennon
Born 9 October 1940 Liverpool, England
Died 8 December 1980 (aged 40)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Activist, artist, record,producer, singer ,songwriter, writer
Years active 1954-1980
Associated acts The Quarrymen The Beatles
Plastic Ono Band Harry Nilsson
The Dirty Mac Yoko Ono David Bowie Elton John
(18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) He was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
He was the country's first black chief executive, and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election.
His government focused on dismantling the legacy of Apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation.
Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.
Internationally, Mandela was Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999.
*She was an African-American Civil Rights activist, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".
*Parks was refused to obey bus driver's order to give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filler.
*She was active to the Black Power movementand the supportod the political prisoners of the U.S
*Parks wrote her autobiography and lived a largely life in Detroit. In her final years, she sufferd from dementia. Parks received national recognition, including the NAACP's 1979 Spingarn Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal and a posthumous statue in the United States Capitol's National Statuary Hall. Upon her death in 2005, she was the first woman and third non-U.S goverment official to lie in honor at the Capitol Rotunda.
By Papadimitriou Panagiota
• Abraham Lincoln was born Feb 12, 1809, in Hardin Country, Kentucky
• At an early age, the young Lincoln Abraham lost his mother and his father moved away to Indiana
• But, he also had a thirst for knowledge and worked very hard to excel in his studies. This led him to become trained as a lawyer
• As a lawyer, Abraham developed a great capacity for quick thinking and oratory.
• In particular, during this campaign he gave one of his best remembered speeches.
• . I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free.
• Lincoln was tragically assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, an actor on, April 14, 1865
BY STELIOS SFONDYLIS
• (1818 – 1895) African American, anti-slavery campaigner.
• Douglass was the most influential African-American leader of the Nineteenth Century, and exemplified great moral courage in opposing slavery and injustice.
• Frederick Douglass was a former slave who escaped and became a powerful anti-slavery orator
• He saw little of his mother when growing up, and she died when he was 10.
• He also said that even in his darkest hours of slavery, he always held onto an inner conviction that ‘slavery would not always be able to hold me within its foul embrace‘
• In 1845, Douglass wrote his first autobiography
• On February 20, 1895, Douglass died of a heart attack or stroke in Washington
BY STELIOS SFONDYLIS
Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997) also known as Blessed Teresa of Calcutta,
She was a Roman Catholic religious sister and missionary.
She was born in Skopje, into a Kosovar Albanian family
After having lived in Macedonia, she moved to Ireland and then to India
Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, which in 2012 consisted of over 4,500 sisters and was active in 133 countries.
Simone de Beuavoir
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir was born in Paris on 9 January 1908
She was a French writer,philosopher activist,feminist and social theorist
De Beauvoir wrote novels,biographies,politics and social issues.She is known for her 1949 treatise The Second Sex,a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism
She was awarded the Prix Goncourt in 1954,the Jerusalem Prize in 1975 and the Austria State Prize for European Literature in 1978
By Thanasis Thomas
*She was the longest-serving First Lady of the United State. President Harry S. Truman later callerd her ''First Lady of the World in tribute to her human rights achievements.
*Roosevelt was a controversial First Ladyfor her outspokenness particularly her stance on racial issues. She was the first presidential spouse to hold press conferences, write a syndicated newspaper column and speak at a national convention.
*By he time of her death, she was regarded as ''One of the most esteemed women in the world'', she was called '' the object of almost universal respect'' on her New York Times obituary. In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallup's List of Most Admired People of the 20th Century.
By Panagiota Papadimitriou
She was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.
She was widely criticised for her militant tactics, and historians disagree about their effectiveness, but her work is recognised as a crucial element in achieving women's suffrage in Britain.
Pankhurst founded the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), an all-women suffrage advocacy organisation dedicated to "deeds, not words. The group identified as independent from – and often in opposition to – political parties. It became known for physical confrontations: its members smashed windows and assaulted police officers.
*She was an American politician, diplomat and activist.
Born in New York City, U.S, in 1884
Was an American politician, diplomat and activist
She was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from 1933 to 1945.
She served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952.
She was a controversial First Lady for her outspokenness, particularly her stance on racial issues.
She was the first presidential spouse to hold press conferences, write a syndicated newspaper column, and speak at a national convention.
She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the civil rights of African Americans and Asian Americans, and the rights of World War II refugees.
President Truman called her as “the First Lady of the world” for the wars that she gave for the human rights.
Died in Manhattan in 1962.
By the time of her death, she was regarded as "one of the most esteemed women in the world"; she was called "the object of almost universal respect" in her New York Times obituary.
In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th century.
Born in Dorchester County, Maryland, U.S in 1822, in slavery.
She escaped and subsequently made some thirteen missions to rescue approximately seventy enslaved family and friends, using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad.
When the US Civil War began, she worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy.
She was the first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, also she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than seven hundred slaves.
She was active in the women's suffrage movement until illness overtook her.
Died in New York, U.S. in 1913 from pneumonia
by Olga Zerva & Christiana Matentsidou
Jean Price Mars
BY MARINA MOURTIDOU
Is a NGO, it was created for protect and defend the environment. Is founded in 1971 in Canadá, the directors are David Ritter, Kumi Naidoo. Greenpeace is an organization that works for life: not only is dedicated to protecting the environment, but always worked actively and resolutely for peace. In this organization colaborated 2.8 millions of people.
Erin Brockovich-Ellis alas Allin Hidalgo was born the 22nd of June 1970. Erin found that Pacific Gas and Electric company was contaminating drinking water. Se fought to make the company stop doing that.Because of her battle, this company was sentenced. Also in 2000 they made a film based on what happened.
Wangari Muta Maathai (1 April 1940 – 25 September 2011) was a Kenyan environmental and political activist.
In the 1970s, Maathai
founded the Green Belt Movement
, an environmental non-governmental organization focused on the
planting of trees, environmental conservation, and women's rights
. In 1984, she
was awarded the Right Livelihood Award
, and in 2004, she
became the first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize
for "her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace". Maathai was an
elected member of Parliament
and served as
assistant minister for Environment and Natural Resources
in the government of President Mwai Kibaki between January 2003 and November 2005. She was an
Honorary Councillor of the World Future Council
. In 2011, Maathai died of complications from ovarian cancer.
He was one of there firts members of Greenpeace.
Nowadays Greenpeace is the big organitzation that likes preserve natural environment.
In 1966, Stowe and his family moved to Vancouver, Canada, where he became a full-time activist. He drew up the Constitution for a small group trying to stop nuclear testing on Amchitka Island, the Don't Make a Wave Committee. Fellow activists Marie and Jim Bohlen, Patrick Moore, and law student Paul Coté were among the earliest members. At the end of one meeting, Stowe flashed the "V" sign customary in the sixties and said, "Peace". Bill Darnell responded "Let's make it a green peace", coining the phrase that has become ubiquitous.
In 1972 the Don't Make a Wave Committee officially changed its name to Greenpeace.
Thoreau is an American original — an amazing mix of land surveyor and pencil designer, naturalist and social reformer, poet and philosopher. But Thoreau himself had something to tell us about himself and his work. "
My profession is always to be on the alert to find God in Nature, to know his lurking-places, to attend all the oratorios, the operas, of nature
." "I believe in the forest, and in the meadow, and in the night in which the corn grows." It was as though he could see through Nature to a glimpse of the divine. What might sound to us like a contradiction made perfect sense to him: "Heaven is under our feet as well as over our heads." Exalting his own small world of Walden Pond and Walden Woods and the Concord countryside, Henry Thoreau exalted nature.
Largely overlooked during his lifetime, he is
now praised as one of the nation's most powerful voices for the natural environment
. "In Wildness is the preservation of the World," he wrote, and with such statements helped shape the thinking of modern day environmentalists. Today countless people point to
Thoreau as the father of this century's environmental movement.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (JFK) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963)
He was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, The Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the establishment of the Peace Corps, developments in the Space Race, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Civil Rights Movement, the "New Frontier" domestic program, abolition of the federal death penalty in the District of Columbia, and increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War all took place during his presidency.
At age 43, he was the youngest man to have been elected to the office, the second-youngest president (after Theodore Roosevelt, who was 42 when he became president after the assassination of William McKinley). Kennedy was the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. To date, Kennedy has been the only Roman Catholic president and the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize, for his biography Profiles in Courage.
Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963 by a sniper at the Texas School Book Depository. The FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin. The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) agreed with the conclusion that Oswald fired the shots that killed the president, but also concluded that Kennedy was probably assassinated as the result of a conspiracy.[
Born in Paris, Edmond Becquerel (1820-1891), a French physicist in 1839, is known for his studies in the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics.
He is best known for his discovery and unraveling the key principle to solar energy cells, the photovoltaic effect.
He received his doctorate from the University of Paris, and eventually took a professorial position at the Agronomic Institute of Versailles. He was especially interested in phosphorescence and luminescence, chemical reactions caused by exposing certain substances to light. In the1840s he found that these reactions could produce an electric current in both liquids and metals. The connection between light energy and chemical energy was seized upon by many scientists in the following years, and research has led to the development of the photoelectric cell.
The photovoltaic effect is the basic physical process through which a photovoltaic cell converts sunlight into electricity. Sunlight is composed of photons which are packets of solar energy. These photons contain different amounts of energy that correspond to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a photovoltaic cell, they may be reflected or absorbed, or they may pass right through. The absorbed photons generate electricity.
By Yanira, Daniella, Arnau & Alex M.
By Eloi, Nerea,
Dani & Joan
By Èrica, Aidan, Alba i Èrik.
By Andrea, Oriol, Adrià & Lucía
By Aniol, Nayara, Ricard i Enrique
Paul Leonard Newman (January 26, 1925 – September 26, 2008) was an American actor, film director, professional racing and team owner. He was also an environmentalist, activist, and philanthropist.
He won numerous awards.
Paul had done too much things for many difference topics, to help the peaple.
Since the 1970, an event called "Newman Day" has been celebrated at Kenyon College, Bates College, Princeton University, and other American colleges.
BY ISMINI MORAITOU
They run hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis
Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation
Mother Teresa was the recipient of numerous honours, including the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize.
In 2003, she was beatified as "Blessed Teresa of Calcutta".
Born in Tokyo, Japan, in 1933, Yoko Ono began her artistic pursuits in New York City. She met John Lennon of the Beatles in November 1966, when he visited a preview of her exhibition at a gallery in London. They married in March 1969, and collaborated on art, film and musical projects until 1980, when Lennon was shot by a deranged fan. Ono has continued her art career as well as efforts to honor Lennon's memory, starting the LennonOno Grant for Peace award in 2002.
Born María de la Inmaculada Concepción Martín;
(15 January 1936 – 25 January 2016),
also known as Conchita or Connie, was a Spanish-born, United-States based peace activist. She lived in Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C. on the 1600 block of Pennsylvania Avenue, in a peace camp across from the White House, from 1 August 1981 in protest of nuclear arms until her death.
Picciotto carried on the longest continuous act of political protest in the United States, with her camp having been nicknamed by her supporters as "1601 Pennsylvania Avenue".
Eleanor Holmes Norton, Washington D.C.'s delegate to the House of Representatives, noted that many of Picciotto's goals were accomplished during her protest including a reduction in atomic proliferation.
"Let's make a world in peace
Not a world in pieces"
by Matentsidou Christiana
by Christiana Matentsidou
by Tania Liama
A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family, Mandela attended Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied law.
Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League.
After the Afrikaner minority government of the National Party established apartheid – a system of racial segregation that privileged whites – in 1948, he rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 anti-apartheid Defiance Campaign, was appointed superintendent of the organisation's Transvaal chapter and presided over the 1955 Congress of the People.
Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961.
Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the South African Communist Party (SACP).
Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, leading a sabotage campaign against the government.
In 1962, he was arrested, convicted of conspiracy to overthrow the state, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.
He served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison.
An international campaign lobbied for his release, which was granted in 1990 amid escalating civil strife.
Mandela joined negotiations with President F. W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory and became South Africa's first black president. He published his autobiography in 1995.
Leading South Africa's Government of National Unity, which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela also created the Truth and 0Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. While continuing with the former government's economic liberalism, his administration introduced measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services.
Internationally, he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. He declined to run for a second term, and was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki.
Mandela became an elder statesman, focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation.
Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life.
Denounced as a communist terrorist by critics, he nevertheless gained international acclaim for his activism, having received more than 250 honours, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Soviet Lenin Peace Prize.
He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata ("Father"); he is often described as the "Father of the Nation".