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Transcript of MODERN ENGLISH
2. Auxiliary Verbs
b) Negation By: Tea Avdylaj i. Everyone arrested at the demonstration
has now been released. EXERCISE 7 •The relation between clause finiteness and verb inflection can be stated as follows:
1. If the verb is a primary form,
the clause is finite.
2. If the verb is a gerund-participle
or a past participle, the clause is
3. If the verb is a plain form, the clause
may be finite or non-finite;
a) Imperative and subjunctive
clauses are finite.
b) Infinitival clauses are non-
finite. ii. It is essential that he complete the course. iii. I think they may not have read the
iv. Having been through a similar experience
myself, I sympathize.
v. I’d advise you not to take it too seriously. vi. Hurry up, or we’ll be late. •Auxiliary verbs differ sharply in grammatical behaviour from lexical verbs.
Sub-classes of auxiliaries are:
•Modal auxiliaries •Non-modal auxiliaries SUBJECT-AUXILIARY INVERSION •Interrogative clauses differ from declaratives in the position of the subject •For interrogative clauses with lexical verbs we must add the auxiliary verb do, referred to as the dummy auxiliary do. i.They were informed of the change. ii.She would rather we met later. iii.They ought to accept the offer. iv.They used to live together. v.We have to keep them informed. vi.They need to replace the cartridge. vii.I should inform the police. viii.They had it repaired. ix.You usually help clean up. x.They keep telling her that. NEGATION •TWO ways in which auxiliaries differ from lexical verbs with respect to negation 1. When the negation is associated with a primary verb-form 2. Auxiliaries have negative inflectional forms i.You must get involved. ii.It is going to rain. iii.They tend to disagree. iv.She would like to see them. v.I saw them leave. vi.He wants to tell her. vii.He might have told her. viii.I’m going to solve it. ix.They can sardines to preserve them. x.They can preserve sardines. THANK YOU EXERCISE 5 ANSWERS i. NON-FINITE (Past Participle) ii. FINITE (Subjunctive) iii. FINITE iv. NON-FINITE (-ing) vi. FINITE (Imperative) v. NON-FINITE EXERCISE 6 ANSWERS i. Were they informed of the change?
AUXILIARY VERB ii. Would she rather we met later?
AUXILIARY VERB iii. Should they accept the offer?
AUXILIARY VERB iv. Used they to live together?
* Did they used to live together?
LEXICAL VERB v. Have we to keep them informed?
* Do we have to keep them informed?
LEXICAL VERB vi. Need they to replace the cartridge?
*Do they need to replace the cartridge?
LEXICAL VERB vii. Should I inform the police?
AUXILIARY VERB viii. Had they it repaired?
*Did they have it repaired?
LEXICAL VERB ix. Help you usually clean up?
*Do you usually help clean up?
LEXICAL VERB x. Keep they telling her that?
*Do they keep telling her that?
LEXICAL VERB EXERCISE 7 ANSWERS i. 1) You must not get involved.
2) You mustn't get involved. ii. 1) It is not going to rain.
2) It isn't going to rain. iii. 1) They tend not to agree.
2) They tendn't to agree.
*They don't tend to agree. iv. 1) She would not like to see them.
2) She wouldn’t like to see them. v. 1) I saw not them leave.
2) I sawn’t them leave.
*I did not see them leave. vi. 1) He wants not to tell her.
2) He wantsn’t to tell her.
*He does not want to tell her. vii. 1) He might not have told her.
2) He mightn’t have told her. viii. 1) I am not going to solve it.
2) I amn’t going to solve it ix. 1) They can not sardines to preserve them.
2) They can’t sardines to preserve them.
*They do not can sardines to preserve them. x. 1) They cannot preserve sardines.
2) They can’t preserve sardines.