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Airplanes

aviation
by

Michael Wise

on 16 April 2010

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Transcript of Airplanes

How Airpanes Work The key component of an airplane flying is airflow over the wings. The bottom of a wing is flat, and the top bulges upward in a curve. as air passes over the wing the air has to travel longer over the top and faster under the bottom. this makes the air pressure above the wing decrease and the air pressure below the wing increases which causes a force to provide lift.
To manuever a plane in air, the pilot has a yoke, its like a steering wheel but if moves flaps. these flaps are, the alleron's, rudder, and elevators. the elevators are used to make the plane go up and down.The elevator is located on the small wings on the fin. As the elevator moves up it catches airflow and it pushes the tail down making the nose go up, and the same for goin into a dive.
The most commonly used control surface is the rudder.It's located on the fin at the back of the plane. It is used to turn the plane from side to side. when the rudder is turning into the airstream, the nose is turned in the direction the rudder was turned.
The allerons are used mostly for gradual turns. The allerons are located on the wings close to the fuselage. When on is tilted up and the other is tilted down the plane begins to bank, or turn slightly to either direction. Work cited http://library.thinkquest.org/trio/TR0110764.html
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0872854.html
http://www.fighter-panes.om
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors /bljjetenginehistory.htm
http://www.nps.gov/br/travel/aviation/pioneers.htm Early flight Throughout history , many have challenged themselves and eachother to see who could be the best. Aviators are no exception. From the wright brothers first flght to present day, pilots have been a particularly competitive group as the fought to see who could go the fastest, the highest, and the furthest. Some would say aviators of this time period were foolhardy, careless, or even crazy. whether pursuing a flight record, performing aerial tricks or exploring areas of the globe, they shared some of the same fearless qualities. Overall aviators were a very drivin group of of individuals, detemined to bring out, not only the best in themselves, but also the best in eachother.
in 1909, lois Bleriot, a french aircraft designer and self trained pilot became of the the first record setters by becoming the first to cross the english channel. His journey lasted for 37 minutes between france and england.
in 1910 three airmeets were held in the United States (Los Angeles, Massachusetts, and New York) it inspired many future aviators such as Lincoln Beachey and Harriet Quimby. Harriet was so excited about the experience she had at the meets she became the first women to gain a pilot license. Quimby would go on the five several aerial demostrations and break down the stereotypes that suggested that women were not fit to be pilots, but Harriet did not live long, she had a bad crash at the same meet that enticed her to fly and she died in 1912.
Curtiss and the wright brothers had already asembled there own flight teams and they would travel across the country to entertain crowds, and they competed against eachother to see who could fly the fastest farthest and highest.
after world war I a new type of flying called "barnstorming" appeared they were mostly pilots from the war who had learn just about everything about there plane and they could perform almost any trick or feat with there airplanes. in the 1920's barnstorming became one of the most popular forms of entertainment
charles lindberg, a famous aviation was a barnstormer and also a airmail pilot ( carries mail throughout the country). on may 20, 1927 he became the first to flt the atlantic ocean solo. linbergs record setting flight from new york to paris , in the spirit of St. Louis. he traveled 3,610 miles in 33 hours.
in 1928 a man named Charles Kingsford-(smithy) became the first to fly across the pacific
Howard Hughes Jr., one of america's msot famous billionaires and among the world's most important aviators, was determind to let nothing stop him in his pursuit of beating the global filght record. by the early 1930s, he established several transcontinental flight records, altitude, and speed records. on july 14 he arrived after flying for 3 days 9 hours and 17 minutes, more than four days better than the record he smashed.
Amelia Earhart earned many records but she's most famous for attempting to fly around the world at its widest point with Fred noonan, the both disappeared in bad weather near Howland island in the pacific. neither of them were found and there plane wasnt found. still after many year of aviation records being broken no one had flown near the north or south poles. in 1928 wilkins and Eielson (well known aviators at the time ) flew across antartica. many other flights went over the north and south poles.
On October 14, 1947 Chuck Yeager was the first to break the sound barrier, or surpass mach 1 in the x-1
it didnt take long for aviators to break just about every record that could be set. American began creating commercial planes to carry people across the U.S. the main manufactures were McDonnel Douglas, Boeing , and Lockheed. but when world war II started they had to manufacture bombers,fighter planes, and transport planes for the military. when world war II ended the U.S. was flooded with used aircraft. douglas made DC-1 DC-2 DC-3 DC-6 and DC-7 these were all fast planes that could go from coast to coast and they helped douglas to get ahead of the rest of the manufactures. lockheed also kept up with plane called the constellation. the first jet fighters came out in the 1950's (p-80 f-84 and f-86 was the best of them.) missles and jet bombers were the focus in the 1950's also.
when the cold war ended military aircraft demand fell drasticly and the airplane had to rely on commercial aviation mostly.today boeing is the only airplane manufacturer in the U.S. because it bought the rest and lockheed moved to strictly making military aircraft Military aviation
Military aviation appeared in World war I where aricraft was used to spot enemy movement. early aerial combat consisted of aviators shooting at eachother with hand held weapons. The need to stop reconnaissance by enemy aircraft rapidly led to the development of fighter planes, a class of aircraft designed specificly tp destroy enemy aircraft.

Fixed, forward-firing guns were foind to be the most effective armament for most world war I era fighters, but were nearly impossible to first through the spinning propeller without destroying it. Anothony Herman Fokker solved this problem. he connected the firiing mechanism of the gun to the timing of the motor so the gun would fire in between the propellers without destroying them.
many began calling this air fighting air-to-air combat. on of the greatest aces in the world war Manfred Von Richthofen ( The Red Baron)

a type of aerial warfare most common is dogfighting. the point is to get behind your enemy so you can take them out without haveing the chance of being shot down by there machine gun. Also staying in the clouds, attacking in the direction of the sun, and staying at higher alltitudes than your enemy are the key parts of aerial combat. most of these rules still apply in the present day.
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